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Analysis of Learning Organization in Dealing a Change of Organizational Environment Based On the Theory of Changes

Abstract

Quickly change to claim every organization to quickly get and adapt with that change, and this change appearance opposed but exactly have to be managed. Ability of each organization in face of this change depends on creativity ability and innovate all organizational member. Creativity and innovate to represent the indicator of organization successfulness which emerge from continuous organization member as individual learn. This ability have to be trained with the process learn continual.
Start from phenomenon, embosoming organization in knowledge era and technological, becoming piquancy to be conducted by study at one particular place which it is true seldom be conducted by a study that is at SMK 4 Negara. SMK 4 Negara represent the governmental organization in the field of Education. In education organization, each educator claimed to be non-stop to learn by correspond to the science growth so that able to improve the competitor quality. This matter will be existed if there is willingness from organizational member to study.
This research is done at SMK 4 Negara. This Research included in the descriptive research type for the purpose of knowing single variable value. Population in research is all personal consisted of the headmaster, teacher and officer of SMK 4 Negara. The tool analysis in this research is Cross Tabulation. The tool used to show the relation of research attribute cross by calculating score as a whole and AHP for the rank of every variable.
Result of research indicate that the Learning Organization ( LO) have been executed at SMK 4 Negara based on  pursuant to theory in this research that is execute 6 element LO that is Vision and Mission, Decision Making, Organizational Cultural, Creativity and Innovate, Education And Training, and Motivation. Sixth of elements have been executed at SMK 4 Negara. Execution LO, representing a study process in order to reaching organization target which have been specified. Pursuant to this research result, teacher and administrative personnel assess that Headmaster have executed the Learning Organization with six element developed from theory Luthans. Result of research about opinion learn and administrative personnel to this development LO importance have also supported the execution LO. Teacher And officer have a notion that LO is vital importance applied in each organization specially in SMK 4 Negara

Introduction:

In an era where changes in the external environment of the organization take place as fast as it is today, it takes a resource that is not only sufficient to support the survival of the organization, but more than that, the resources must also be able to provide an opportunity for the organization to win the competition and provide an advantage competitive ( Mondy, 1993 ; Luthans, 2001 ; Harley, 2016, Sudja and Yuesti, 2017 ).

In harmony with these interests, attention has been devoted to human resource issues as a resource that allows organizations to have sustainable competitive advantage ( Mondy, 1993 ; Luthans, 2001 ; Harley, 2016 ). The ability of these resources to generate the accumulation of diverse ideas and ideas as the basis for the creation of specific knowledge for the organization that develops and manages its human resources is its own strength to deal with all the uncertainties posed by environmental change ( Mondy, 1993 ; Luthans, 2001 ; King, 2009 ; Harley, 2016 ). Therefore, how this unique knowledge formed and evolved into a source of competitive advantage is critical to understanding, so from this understanding can be developed various organizational activities that can be directed to the management of human resources in a more strategic direction ( Dixon, 1994, Cross and Baird, 2000 ; Davenport and Prusak, 2000 ; Earl, 2001 ).

This is a future challenge in the field of human resources, both for business and non-business organization, therefore need to improve its ability to face these challenges in order to have strong competitiveness. In many contexts the organizational capability always changes as the organizational environment changes. Organizations capable of dealing with change are organizations that are willing to learn in their organizations' working environments ( Huber, 1991, Hansen and Tearney, 1999 ; Easterby and Smith, 2003 ; King, 2002, 2005, 2006a, 2006b, 2008 ; Lee and Cole, 2003 ; Sudja and Yuesti, 2017 ).

Complexity and uncertainty in the face of this era of knowledge and technology leads to changes in all aspects of the organization. This is a real consequence faced by every government organization and company. An organization certainly does not want to experience death in the face of this challenge, therefore, to survive and have

competitive advantages then the organization must have the ability to adapt to environmental changes through the transformation of learning organization, which makes itself a capable and willing to learn organization (Polanyi, 1966, Levit and March 1988, Nonaka, 1994; O'Dell and Greyson, 1998; Donald and Ackerman; 1997; Menon and Pfeffer; 2003; Ward and Aurum; 2004; Van de Ven, 2005; Oliver and Kndadi, 2006) .

There is a new society's view that society is now in an age of innovation. Organizational innovation has become a focus of attention, especially based on the reason that innovation has occupied a strategic position in the community through the birth of innovative organizations on the one hand, and the ending of traditional organizations on the other. In addition, the existing technology has also become obsolete, so for the sake of its existence, the organization despite learning to innovate ( Harley, 2016 ).

The rapidly changing organizational environment demands every organization to transform itself through learning or building its organization into a learning organization, by giving an opportunity for members of the organization to learn and develop their potential. This is a consequence that must be taken for the organization to survive and have a competitive advantage ( Huber, 1991, Hansen and Tearney, 1999 ; Easterby and Smith, 2003 ; King, 2002, 2005, 2006a, 2006b, 2008 ; Lee and Cole, 2003 ). Learning organizations are aimed at improving the sustainability of competitiveness. The advantage of an organization in the face of intense of competition, depends on the individual who is in it, which has the speed, ability of responsiveness, agility, learning ability and employee competence that is knowledge, skills, and ability related to the job. Organizational managers should think about how to build and sustain sustainable competitive advantage (Nonaka, 1994; O'Dell and Greyson, 1998; Donald and Ackerman, 1997; Menon and Pfeffer, 2003; Ward and Aurum; 2004; Van de Ven, 2005; Oliver and Kndadi, 2006).

Rapid change requires every organization to quickly respond to and adapt to change, and the emergence of this change is not against or opposed but it must be managed. The ability of any organization to cope with these changes depends on the creativity and innovation capabilities of the organization's members (Nonaka, 1994; O'Dell and Greyson, 1998; Donald and Ackerman, 1997; Menon and Pfeffer; 2003; Ward and Aurum; 2004; Van de Ven , 2005; Oliver and Kndadi, 2006). Creativity and innovation are indicators of organizational success that arise from the individual members of the organization who are continuously learning. This ability should be trained with continuous learning ( Harley, 2016 ).

As a learning organization (LO), always provide opportunities for employees to always and willing to improve themselves to achieve individual success that brings the success of the organization. Through Learning, individuals can do everything that has never been done before. To create individuals who want to learn, the organization can provide an opportunity for employees to update knowledge. The competencies of the workers can determine the progress of the organization which in turn will reflect the competence of the organization. To realize an organization that is able to learn and develop intangible resources needed which is very important contribution of virtual resources. Virtual resources are sourced from worker knowledge, spiritual ability, intellectual ability, skill, and mind competence which if intangible assets are developed that continuously, it will be the organizational pill in the building of Learning Organization so as to have competitive advantage. Established firms require innovation and those unable to innovate will face the fate of deterioration and decline (Nonaka, 1994; O'Dell and Greyson, 1998; Donald and Ackerman, 1997; Menon and Pfeffer, 2003; Ward and Aurum, 2004; Van de Ven, 2005; Oliver and Kndadi, 2006).

Departing from the phenomenon, which covers the organization in the era of knowledge and technology, became an interesting thing to do a study on a place that is rarely done in the study of SMK Negeri 4 Negara. SMK Negeri 4 Negara is a government organization in the field of Education. In educational organizations, every educator is required to continue to learn to adjust to the development of science so as to improve the quality of learners. This will be realized if there is a willingness from members of the organization to do the learning.

The concept of learning and becoming a learner, has now become the core of human resource development. To cope with change and adaptable strategy is needed to manage change and this can be done by building Learning Organization (LO). This adaptation and transformation demands is well-founded, since an educator needs high creativity and innovation to stay competitive and to demand that the individual or organization continuously improve its competence by learning. Learning is a sedentary behavior that brings changes to the individual (Nonaka, 1994; O'Dell and Greyson, 1998; Donald and Ackerman, 1997; Menon and Pfeffer, 2003; Ward and Aurum; 2004; Van de Ven, 2005; Oliver and Kndadi , 2006; Sudja and Yuesti, 2017).

A change not only happens to the business environment, but also the educational environment. The educational environment is faced with high science and technology changes that require adaptation to the changing of science and technology. In the future, only organizations that are able to change and learn new skills on an ongoing basis will be the only source of competitive advantage for the organization. Organizations that make themselves learning, see change as a positive opportunity to create and learn new sources of competitive advantage. Along with the demands of the times, which are often overwhelmingly changing, educational institutions in Indonesia have time to direct the atmosphere of organizing learning organizations in the concept of human resource development (Nonaka, 1994; O'Dell and Greyson, 1998; Donald and Ackerman, 1997; Menon and Pfeffer , 2003; Ward and Aurum, 2004; Van de Ven, 2005; Oliver and Kndadi, 2006).

This research is to answer fundamental questions about organizational practices against criteria that potentially contribute to educational institutions for learning, making itself a learning organization (LO). Based on the literature, to be able to develop into an LO, an organization needs a set of special characteristics. This characteristic is called the LO characteristic.

Research Objectives:

Several previous studies have explained the concept of Change Management and Learning Organization. Based on the above, the purpose of this research is as follows:

  1. General purpose. Understand the conceptual boundaries of learning organization conceptually based on the thinking of change management theory.

  2. Special Purpose: 1) Identify learning organization in the concept of change management theory in educational organization.2) Identify the measurement of learning organization in the concept of change management theory in the educational organization based on the opinions of students, teachers, and principals.3) Identify typology learning organization in the concept of change management theory in educational organization.

  3. Research Urgency:

Urgency of this research is 1) the existence of difference measurement of learning organization in concept of change management theory at education organization. 2) difference of perception about learning organization in concept of change management theory at education organization. This leads to many interpretations of the measurement of learning organization in the concept of change management theory in educational organizations. Based on this, it is necessary to develop a learning organization in the concept of change management theory in educational organization.

D. Research Contribution

  1. Theory Contribution. This research is expected to contribute new understanding to explain and improve the existing theory of learning organization in the theory of change management in educational organization, measurement of learning organization in the concept of change management theory on educational organization based on students' opinion, teacher, and head of school, typology learning organization in the concept of change management theory in educational organization.

  2. Practical Contributions. This study is also expected to help the application of measurement of learning organization in the concept of change management theory in educational organization, measurement of learning organization in the theory of change management in educational organization based on the opinion of students, teachers and head of school, typology learning organization in the concept of change management theory on organization education.

  3. Policy Contributions. The results of this research is expected to be used as a consideration for the Principal to do learning organization in the concept of change management theory in educational organization, measurement of learning organization in the concept of change management theory on educational organization based on the opinion of students, teachers, and head school, typology learning organization in the theory of change management concepts in educational organizations.

  4. Theory:

  5. Learning Organization:

Tjakraatmadja ( 2002 ), on "Characteristics of Individual and Organizational Learning Process." Which resulted in the finding that to build LO required three pillars are: Individual learning (individual learning), Path of knowledge transformation, Learning organization (organization learning). To build the organization into LO the three pillars support each other, individual learning pillars, to enhance individual competence, Pillar knowledge transformation serves as a tool for the emergence of the process of knowledge transformation (competence) through the process of sharing knowledge among members of the organization. While organizational learning, is a pillar to generate intellectual capital is the capital that can provide added value for the company. Intellectual capital comes from the knowledge of workers who can be the source of creating competitive advantage.

Organizational learning is said to be a venue for building human groups with diverse competencies, and able to carry out cooperation so as to be able to share vision, knowledge to be synergized and transformed into intellectual capital of the organization. The main concept of Organizational Learning is shared learning by involving all members of the organization, so sharing mechanisms of thinking, sharing perspective, shared vision, are key to success for Organizational Learning. Organizational learning in this context means: Part of daily work activities, 2. Applied to individual or corporate work unit, able to solve problems, Emphasize the dissemination of knowledge, An opportunity to get change.

Research conducted by Sudharatna and Lie in 2004 on "Learning Characteristics Contributed to Its read to Change: A study Of The Thai Mobile Phone Service Industry". This study shows that there is a positive correlation (significance level 0.01) between organizational readiness to change and Learning Organization characteristics that include leadership Culture value, commitment and empowerment, communication, employee characteristics and performance upgrading. These findings indicate that an organization that has strong learning organizational characteristics then the organization also has a high degree of organizational readiness to change. Based on these findings means strengthening the statement that it is important for an organization to develop into an LO in order to survive in a changing business environment.

Research conducted by Diputra in 2004 on "Analysis of Learning Organizations in PT. Pikiran Rakyat Bandung by Using Marquardt Model ". Shows that 5 sub-systems support learning organization that is learning ability, organization, stakeholder, knowledge management and technology enough support the creation of a learning organization PT. Pikiran Rakyat Bandung and can be classified as learning organization.

Research conducted by Hadiati in 2005 on "Strategy to Manage Changes Through Laerning Organization in Small Medium Enterprise Small Rattan Furniture Industry Sentra", shows the result that:

  1. Organizational learning in the environment of small and medium enterprises in the small rattan furniture industry center in Trangsan village, shows that 4 characteristics of LO namely decentralization of decision making, openness and diversity of ideas, high tolerance of failure and encouragement multiple experiments is enough to support the creation of a learning organization the environment of small and medium enterprises. While the characteristics of continual training for personal in the environment of small and medium enterprises is still relatively low to support the formation of a learning organization.

  2. There is a tendency among workers to place aspects of learning in teams, as a priority and foremost as learning tools and instead to place "freedom of expression" as a lower or less important aspect. Workers have not been able to take advantage of the opportunities given by corporate leaders to express ideas, ideas and job-related suggestions. That means less workers take the opportunity to make it a learning tool. Team learning and training aspects significantly have a very effective role for individual learning, so both can be prioritized as learning tools. Entrepreneurs place the aspect of information disclosure as the most important priority as a learning of tool, and instead puts the product development team aspect as a lower or less important aspect. The information disclosure aspect of corporate leaders has the most effective role for learning, thus the individual can prioritize such aspects as learning tools. Disclosure of information is considered very supportive and supportive role of its activities, because of this information can be obtained knowledge related to the market and technology.

  3. Assessment among workers, there is a tendency that medium-sized enterprises are rated as better organizations in the implementation of "Learning Organization" factors. Workers rate, small company environment less effective in implementing LO factor as learning tool. Aspects of training, accepting experimental failures, product developer work teams and team-learning, significantly have an equally effective contribution / role to learning in a medium-sized enterprise. The aspect of freedom determines the design of processes that have an effective role for learning.

  1. Organizational learning in the environment of small and medium enterprises in the small rattan furniture industry in Sukoharjo shows that the characteristics in the Learning Organization support a creation of learning organization.

  2. Based on the Analytical Hirarchy Process (AHP) model, there is a tendency among workers to place the learning aspect in the team, as a priority and foremost as a prerequisite for learning and instead to place freedom of expression as a lower or less important aspect. Workers have not been able to take advantage of the opportunities given by the company's chairman to deliver work-related opinions, ideas or suggestions.

  1. Vision and mission of the school that has the element of understanding of the vision and mission, vision and mission knowledge, responses to environmental changes based on the understanding of vision and mission.

  2. Creativity and innovation, both principals, teachers and employees that include elements of how the ability to formulate a strategy, sensitivity to information, the will to try something new.

  3. Organizational culture, which includes elements of how to adapt to changes in the environment, the ability to follow the process of learning, what guidelines are used to solve the problem, how the process of working together groups.

  4. Education and training, related to employee education and training commitments, learning methods and skills-enhancing methods are diverse.

  5. Motivation, which contains elements of how to encourage to always improve knowledge, try something new, and experiment on all employees, reward and punishment to employees.

  6. Decision-making, ie how the principal makes the decision-making process, the involvement of employees in decision-making, openness to understand the opinions of others.

  7. Rogers' Theory of Change:

  1. Stage Awareness. The initial stage states that to make change requires the existence of awareness to change ( Stanton et al., 2006 ).

  2. Interest Stage. This stage states to make changes must arise feelings of love / interest to change. The incidence of interest will encourage and strengthen awareness to change ( McCluer et al., 2006 ).

  3. Evaluation Phase. At this stage there is an assessment of something new so as not to find barriers during the change ( Jafanhar et.al, 2005 ).

  4. Trial Stage. This stage is a test phase of the outcome of change in the hope that something new can be known to the results according to the existing situation ( Lalor, et al, 2005 ).

  5. Adoption stage. The last stage is the process of change to something new after a trial and feel there are benefits so as to maintain the results of change ( Hadafi, 2011 ).

  1. Innovators. Is a group of people who are brave and ready to try new things. Their social relationships tend to be more intimate than other social groups.

  2. Early Adopters. Such adopter categories generate more opinions than other categories, and always seek information about innovation.

  3. Early Majority. This category of adopters is those who do not want to be the first group to adopt an innovation. Instead, they will be carefully compromised before making a decision to adopt innovation, even for a long time.

  4. Late Majority. This group is more careful about the function of an innovation. They wait until most people have tried and adopted innovations before they make a decision.

  5. Laggards. This group is the last person to adopt innovation. They are more traditional, and are reluctant to try new things. These groups usually prefer to associate with people who have their thinkers with them.

  6. Research Method:

This research was conducted at SMK 4 State located in District Melaya Jembrana Bali. The reason for choosing this object is because SMK 4 Negara is a newly established school that requires management of management based on inputs from various parties. This research belongs to descriptive research type with the intention to know the value of independent variable, either one independent variable or more, without making comparison or linking with other variables and this research try to answer something (Sugiyono, 1999: 11), in this study who want answered is a matter of management learning organization. The population in the study are the personal consisting of principals, teachers and employees of SMK 4 Negara. This population numbered 50 teachers, and 13 school employees. The total population is 63 respondents. Considering that the entire population is still affordable for research, the entire population is sampled. Identification of respondents who made the population and sample research are as follows: The type of data used in this study includes 2 types, Primary Data, namely data obtained by respondents directly through questionnaires distributed to the respondents are teachers and support staff at SMK Negeri 4 Negara and Secondary Data, data sourced from State Vocational School 4 on the condition of the school, this data in the form of school profile in 2017. Methods of data collection are done by: Interview, Questionnaire, and Documentation Study

  1. Data Analysis Techniques with Analytical Hirarchy Process (AHP). The AHP method was first developed by Thomat L Saatt 1970. AHP is designed to capture rationally the perceptions, opinions, or judgments of people who are closely connected with a particular problem through procedures designed to arrive at a scale of preferences among alternatives. AHP application in this research is to assess the importance of factors / attributes that influence in building LO in SMK 4 State. The use of AHP begins by using a hierarchical or network structure of the problem under study. In the hierarchy there are the main objectives (objective), criteria and alternative. Pairwise comparisons are used to form relationships within structure, the result of the comparison will form the matrix.

  2. Research Result And Discussion:

  3. Respondent's Characteristics:

Based on the answers to questions concerning Teacher and Administrative Assessment of the Principal each has the following characteristics:

1) Variable Vision and Mission:

  1. Respondents who answered that the principal always make the vision and mission there are 61 respondents or 96.83%, which answered there are often 1 respondent or 1.59%, and the seller rarely 1 or 1.59%.

  2. Respondents who answered that the principal always knows his job there are 60 respondents or 95.24%, which answered there are often 3 respondents or 4.76%.

  3. Respondents who answered that the principal is always responsive to environmental changes there are 95.24, and the answer is often there are 3 respondents or 4.76%.

  4. Overall the average respondent's answer to this question is that the respondent is always there are 60 respondents or 95.77%, who answered there are often 2.33 or 3.70%, which answered rarely 0.33 or 0.53%.

  5. Variable of Creativity and Innovation:

  6. Respondents who answered that the principal is always able to formulate the strategy there are 53 respondents or 84.13%, which answered often there are 9 respondents or 14.29%, who answered rarely 1 or 1.59%.

  7. Respondents who stated that the principal is always sensitive to information there are 56 respondents or 88.89%, which answered there are often 7 respondents or 11.11%.

  8. Respondents who said that the principal always try something new there are 46 respondents or 73.02%, and who answered often there are 16 respondents or 25.40%, and the answer rarely there are 1 respondent or 1.59%.

  9. In general respondents who answered there are always 52 respondents or 82.01%, who answered often there are 11 respondents or 16.93%, who answered rarely there are 1 respondents or 1.06%.

  10. Organizational Culture Variables:

  11. Respondents who answered that the principal is always adapt to the changes there are 51 respondents or 80.95%, which answered there are often 12 respondents or 19.05%.

  12. Respondents who answered that the principal always follow the process of working there are 51 respondents or 80.95%, which answered there are often 12 respondents or 19.05%.

  13. Respondents who answered that the principal always has guidelines to overcome the problem there are 57 respondents or 90.48%, which answered there are often 6 respondents or 9.52%.

  14. Respondents who answered that the principal always cooperate with the group there are 47 respondents or 74.60%, who answered often there are 16 respondents or 25.40%.

  15. In general, the respondents who always hold for this variable there are 52 respondents or 81.75%, who answered often there are 11 respondents or 18.25%.

  16. Education and Training Variables:

  17. Respondents who answered that the Principal always have commitment to conduct Training there are 53 respondents or 84.13%, which answered there are often 9 respondents or 14.29, and who answered rarely 1 or 1.59%.

  18. Respondents who answered that the principal always makes a variety of learning methods there are 44 or 69.84%, which answered often there are 16 respondents or 25.40%, which answered rarely there are 3 respondents or 4.76%.

  19. Respondents who answered that the Headmaster always make skill improvement there are 39 respondents or 61,90%, who answered there are often 21 respondents or 33,33%, and the answer rarely there are 3 respondents or 4.76%.

  20. In general, respondents who answered always to this variable there are 46 respondents or 71.96%, who answered often there are 15 respondents or 24.34%, and the answer rarely there are 2 respondents or 3.97%.

  21. Motivation Variables:

  22. Respondents who answered that the principal always encourage employees to increase knowledge there are 53 respondents or 84.13%, which answered often there are 9 respondents or 14.29%, which answered rarely there are 1 respondent or 1.59%.

  23. Respondents who answered that the principal always encourage to try something new there are 51 respondents or 80.95%, who answered 10 respondents or 15.87%, who answered rarely there are 2 respondents or 3.17.

  24. Respondents who answered that the principal always encourage employees to experiment there are 47 respondents or 74.60%, who answered there are often 13 respondents or 20.63%, which answered rarely there are 3 respondents or 4.76%.

  25. Respondents who answered that the Headmaster always gave awards there were 38 respondents or 60.32%, who answered often there are 20 respondents or 31.75%, who answered rarely 4 respondents or 6.35%, who answered there was never 1 respondent or 1.59%.

  26. In general, the answer to this variable is the answer always there are 47 respondents or 75%, who answered there are often 20.63%, who answered rarely there are 2 respondents or 3.97%, and who answered there was never 1 respondent or 0.40 %.

  27. Decision Making Variables:

  28. Respondents who answered that the Principal always discussed in solving the problem there are 56 respondents or 88.89%, which answered there are often 7 respondents or 11.11%.

  29. Respondents who answered that the principal always involves employees in making decisions there are 51 respondents or 80.95%, who answered often there are 11 respondents or 17.46%, who answered rarely there are 1 respondents or 1.59%.

  30. Respondents who answered that the principal is always open and understand the difference of opinion with others there are 56 respondents or 86.24%, which answered there are often 8 respondents or 13.23%, which answered rarely there is 0.53%.

  31. In general, the answer to this variable that answers always there are 54 respondents or 86.24%, which answered there are often 8 respondents or 13.23%, who answered rarely there are 1 respondent or 0,53%.

Characteristics of Respondents' Responses to Rating of Interests According to Teachers and Administrative Staff

Characteristics of the next answer is the characteristics of respondents' answers based on the importance of each variable according to teachers and employees. The results of the research for this variable are as follows:

  1. Respondents who answered that making the vision and mission is very important there are 61 respondents or 96.83%, who answered the importance of 1 respondent or 1.59%, which answered quite important there is 1 respondent or 1.59%.

  2. Respondents who answered that knowing their job is very important there are 60 respondents or 95.24%, which answered the importance of 3 respondents or 4.76%.

  3. Respondents who answered that responsiveness to environmental changes is very important there are 60 respondents or 95.24%, which answered the importance of 3 respondents or 4.76%.

In general, respondents who considered that the vision and mission is very important there are 60 respondents or 95,775, the answer is important there are 2 respondents or 3.70%, and the important enough answer is 1 respondent or 0.53%.

  1. Variable Creativity and Innovation:

  2. Respondents who answered that able to formulate strategy is very important there are 53 respondents or 84,13%, which answer important there are 9 respondents or 14,29%, and that answer enough important there is 1 respondent or 1,59%.

  3. Respondents who stated that sensitive to information is very important there are 56 respondents or 88.89%, which answered the importance of 7 respondents or 11.11.

  4. Respondents who say that trying something new is very important there are 43 respondents or 73.02%, who answered important there are 16 respondents or 25.40%, and the important enough answer is 1 respondent or 1.59%.

In general, respondents who answered that the creativity and innovation is very important there are 52 respondents or 82.01%, who answered the importance of 10 respondents or 16.93%, and the answer is quite important there are 1 respondent or 1.06%.

  1. Organizational Culture Variables:

  2. Respondents who answered that adapting to change is very important there are 51 respondents or 80.95%, who answered the importance of 12 respondents or 19.05.

  3. Respondents who answered that following the work process is very important there are 51 respondents or 80.95%, who answered the importance of 12 respondents or 19.05.

  4. Respondents who answered that having guidance to overcome the problem is very important there are 57 respondents or 90.48%, who answered there are important 6 respondents or 9.52%.

  5. Respondents who answered that teamwork is very important there are 47 respondents or 74.60%, which answered the importance of 16 respondents or 25.40%.

In general, respondents who answered that organizational culture is very important there are 52 respondents or 81.75%, which answered the importance of 11 respondents or 18.25.

  1. Education and Training Variables:

  2. Respondents who answered that having commitment to conduct Training is very important there are 55 respondents or 87,30%, which answer important there are 7 respondents or 11,11%, and that answer enough important there is 1 respondent or 1,59%.

  3. Respondents who answered that making a variety of learning methods is very important there are 44 respondents or 69.84%, who answered important there are 16 respondents or 25.40%, and the answer is quite important there are 3 respondents or 4.76%.

  4. Respondents who answered that making skill improvement is very important there are 39 respondents or 61,90%, which answered important there are 21 respondents or 33,33%, and that answer enough important there are 3 respondents or 4.76%.

In general, respondents who answered that the training is very important there are 46 respondents or 73.02%, who answered important there are 14 respondents or 23.28%, and the answer is quite important there are 2 respondents or 3.70%.

  1. Motivation Variables:

  2. Respondents who answered that encouraging employees to increase knowledge is very important there are 53 respondents or 84.13%, who answered important there are 9 respondents or 14.29%, and the important enough answer there is 1 respondent or 1.59%.

  3. Respondents who answered that encouraging to try something new is very important there are 51 respondents or 80.95%, who answered important there are 10 respondents or 15.87%, and the answer is quite important there are 2 respondents or 3.17%.

  4. Respondents who answered that encouraging employees to experiment is very important there are 47 respondents or 74.60%, who answered the importance of 13 respondents or 20.63%, and the answer is quite important there are 3 respondents or 4.76%.

  5. Respondents who answered that giving awards is very important there are 38 respondents or 60.32%, who answered important there are 20 respondents or 31.75%, and the answer is quite important there are 4 respondents or 6.35%.

In general, respondents who answered that motivation is very important there are 47 respondents or 75%, who answered important there are 13 respondents or 20.63%, and the answer is quite important there are 2 respondents or 3.97%.

  1. Decision Making Variables:

  2. Respondents who answered that the discussion in solving the problem is very important there are 56 respondents or 88.89%, which answered the importance of 7 respondents or 11.11%.

  3. Respondents who answered that involving employees in making decisions is very important there are 51 respondents or 80.95%, who answered important there are 11 respondents or 17.46%, and the answer is quite important there is 1 respondent or 1.59%.

  4. Respondents who answered that open and understanding differences of opinion with others is very important there are 56 respondents or 88.89%, which answered the importance of 7 respondents or 11.11%.

In general respondents who answered that decision making is a very important thing there are 54 respondents or 86.24%, which answered there are important 8 respondents or 13.23%, and the answer is important enough there are 1 respondent or 0,53%.

The characteristics of the answers to the importance of the Learning Organization according to the views of teachers and administrators can be seen in Table 4.9. Each variable has a different level of importance. But overall Learning Organization is considered very important according to the views of teachers and administrative personnel.

Data Analysis:

Based on the results of research for respondents' answers about the assessment of the ability of the Principal to do Learning Organization, states that:

  1. The principal has the ability to create vision and mission of 98.81%. The principal has the ability to know his job as principal of 98.81%. The principal has the ability to respond to environmental changes of 98.81%. And the average respondent's answer for vision and mission is 98,81%.

  2. The principal has the ability to formulate a strategy of 95.63%. The principal has a sensitivity to information of 97.22% and the principal has a desire to try something new of 92.86. So the ability to creative and innovative principals amounted to 95.24%.

  3. The principal has the ability to adapt to the environment of 95.24%. The principal has the ability to follow the work process of 95.24%. The principal was able to make guidelines to solve the problem of 97.62%. And the principal has the ability to work together for 93.65%. So the level of organizational culture that is owned by the Principal is 95.44%.

  4. The principal is committed to conduct Training and Education of 98.81%. The principal has the ability to make a diverse learning method of 91.27%. The principal has the ability to make various skills skill method by 89.29%. So the average ability of the Principal to determine the Training is 93.12%.

  5. Principal ability to encourage employees to increase knowledge is 95.63%. The ability of the Principal to encourage employees to try something new is 94.44%. The ability of Sekola chief to encourage employees to experiment is 92.46%. And the principal's ability to reward employees is 87.70%. So the average ability of the Principal to motivate employees is 92.56%.

  6. The ability of the principal to invite discussions with employees in solving problems is 97.22%. The principal's ability to involve employees in making decisions is 94.84%. The ability of the Principal to accept differences and understand differences of opinion of others is 97.22%.

The overall variables described above show the variables that encourage the Principal's learning ability. And the total or total ability of the Principal to study is 95.27%. This figure shows that the principal is very capable to learn and accept changes to the changing environment. Every change is considered as a learning process by the Principal. This figure is not a small number but a large number indicating the willingness and ability of the principal to always learn. Learn from every environmental change and learn from others. Learning in this case is not materially but from experience and practitioners directly through the people around.

The next issue relates to the importance of Learning Organization. Based on the results of research the employees stated the following:

  1. Creation of vision and mission is important, the importance of making vision and mission is equal to 98.81%. The level of knowledge of work has an importance of 98.81%, and Responses to environmental changes have an interest rate of 98.81%. Overall vision and mission have an interest rate of 98.81%.

  2. The ability of the Principal to formulate strategies according to the employee is very important that is stated with the importance level of 95.63%. Principal sensitivity to information has an importance level of 97.22%. Trying something new has an interest rate of 92.86%. These three levels of importance are an explanation of the importance of creativity and innovation. Overall the level of interest of creativity and innovation is 95.24%.

  3. Organizational culture is an important thing for employees. Organizational culture is spelled out in four statements. Adaptation to environmental change has an importance level of 95.24%. Ability to follow the process in work has an interest level of 95.24%. Guidance to solve the problem has an importance level of 97.62%. And Cooperation of group have interest level 93,65%. And overall organizational culture has an interest level of 95.44%.

  4. Education and training have three statements that can measure the level of importance. The Commitment for employees to conduct education and training have an interest level of 96.43%. Different learning methods have an interest rate of 91.27%. The method of skill improvement has an importance level of 89.29%. Overall education and training have an interest rate of 92.33%.

  5. Motivation is measured through three statements that have different levels of importance. Encourage employees to always increase knowledge has an interest level of 95.63%. Pushing something new has an interest rate of 94.44%. Encouraging to experiment has a level of importance of 92.46. And Give awards have an interest level of 87.70%. Overall motivation has an interest rate of 92.56%.

  6. Decision making also indicates there is a learning process. Decision-making illustrates how the Principal solves the problem. According to teachers and employees invite discussions with employees in solving problems have an interest level of 72.22%. Involving employees in making decisions has an interest level of 94.84%. And the openness in understanding the opinions of others has an interest level of 95.11%. So, overall decision-making has an interest rate of 96.43%.

The six variables that have been described above illustrate how the opinion of teachers and administrative personnel about the importance of learning Organization. According to teachers and employees, based on the level of importance Learning organization has an interest level of 95.13%. The degree of importance also shows that employees are beginning to realize the importance of learning organization for the organization and themselves. The higher the level of importance then means the higher level awareness them to the process of Learning organization. These results as a whole can be seen in Table 5.12 below.

Based on the results of the above data calculation can be done Advanced analysis to determine the level of hierarchy of each variable. The results of the calculations can be summarized in Table below:

Table 1 Summary of Results of Results Calculation

Variable Valuation to Headmaster Valuation Interest Rate
98,81%95,24%95,44%93,12%92,56%96,43% 98,81%95,24%95,44%92,33%92,56%96,43%

Source: Research Data, processed: 2017

Next is ranking by ranks from the largest to the smallest. Each assessment is ranked separately. The ranking is as follows:

Figure 1 Figure 4.1 Hierarchical Analyses of Processes

Based on the results of hierarchy analysis or ranking, the results show that there are four variables that have the same position between the assessment of the principal and the interests of the variable itself. The variable that ranks first in terms of assessment of Headmaster is Vision and Mission with value 98,81%. Teachers and Administrative Staff assess that the Head has stated and made a good vision and mission to develop the organization. While in terms of interests of this variable according to teachers and administrative personnel are the most important variables in the organization's learning efforts is the vision and mission with 98.81% value.

The variable that ranks second to the Headmaster's assessment according to the teacher and the administrative staff is the decision-making variable with a value of 96.43%. And based on the level of importance in the opinion of teachers and administrative personnel is Decision Making with a value of 98.81%.

A variable that ranks third in the assessment of teachers and administrative staff of the Principal is Organizational Culture with a value of 95.44%. And based on the level of importance in the opinion of teachers and administrative personnel is the Culture Organization with a value of 95.44%.

The fourth order of assessment of teachers and administrative staff to the Principal is creativity and innovation with a value of 95.24%. And based on the level of importance in the opinion of teachers and administrative personnel who occupy the fourth level of interest is creativity and innovation with a value of 95.24%.

For the fifth assessment of teachers and administrative staff of the Principal is Education and Training with a value of 93.12%. Based on the level of importance in the opinion of teachers and administrative personnel who ranked fifth is Motivation with a value of 92.56%.

The last order based on the assessment of teachers and administrative staff toward the Principal is Motivation with a value of 92.56%. And based on the level of importance in the opinion of teachers and administrative personnel is Education and Training with a value of 92.33%.

C. Discussion:

a. Implementation of Learning Organization at SMK Negeri 4 NEGARA

In this research has obtained the result that teachers and administrative staff have different opinions and assessments. At the time of assessment of the Principal, teachers and administrative staff assess that the Principal has implemented the learning process through the six elements that serve as the foundation of the theory in this study.

Learning Organization (LO) has been implemented in SMK Negeri 4 NEGARA based on the theory in this research that is implementing 6 elements of LO namely Vision and Mission, Decision Making, Organizational Culture, Creativity and Innovation, Education and Training, and Motivation. These six elements have been implemented in SMK Negeri 4 NEGARA. Implementation of LO, is a learning process in order to achieve organizational goals that have been established.

Teacher and Administrative Staff Opinion / Assessment on Implementation of Learning Organization Run by Principal at SMK Negeri 4 NEGARA

Based on the results of this study, teachers and administrative staff assess that the Principal has implemented the Learning Organization with six elements developed from the theory of Luthans. LO Elements run by the Principal and based on the priority level are:

  • First Priority is: Vision and Mission

  • The Second Priority is: Decision Making

  • The Third Priority is: Organizational Culture

  • The Fourth Priority is: Creativity and Innovation

  • The Fifth Priority is: Education and Training

  • The sixth Priority is: Motivation

To obtain this data is done by spreading the questionnaire which then performed tabulation data to get a definite picture. To be more convincing then do then why these six elements have priority like this then conducted a conversation with some teachers and employees who are considered competent, is it true Principals implement this element?

According to the observations of teachers and administrative personnel, the Principal always reminded what the vision and mission of the school and the goals that have been set. Vision and mission is important to be the basis of the implementation of the work. Without a vision and mission then like people live without direction and purpose. But if you have a vision and mission is not clear, then the school will not be clear also direction.

The second thing that is often emphasized by the Principal is about openness in decision making about the implementation of student teaching and learning work. This openness according to the observations of teachers and employees is considered important by the Principal. Any silent decision is not from the initiative itself but on a joint initiative.

Employees observe and assess that the Principal to create a conducive organizational atmosphere must create a culture of good, respect for each other, help and work together so that what has been determined is achieved. Thus, organizational culture has been strived to always be created to support the achievement of School goals.

To achieve a defined goal, requires the right action in a creative and innovative way. Creative means based on the thoughts and creations of each person according to the limits of ability. While innovative is done continuously and always experience renewal.

According to the observations of teachers and Principals employees more emphasis on education and training as an effort to develop human resources. After the human resources are trained and educated, the human resources will have a higher ability to achieve the goal.

Once the goal is achieved, the human resources need to be continuously motivated to achieve good performance. This motivation can be done with various kinds such as giving opportunities for schools, bonuses, promotions and others.

Based on the above description can be said that teachers and administrative staff assess the Principal has implemented the Learning Organization using six elements in accordance with the theory. Thus the assessment of teachers and administrative personnel supports the theory of Luthans ( 2001 ).

The opinion / assessment of teachers and administrative personnel on the interest of building learning organization (LO) in SMK Negeri 4 NEGARA.

The results of research on the opinions of teachers and administrative personnel on LO development interests have also supported the implementation of LO. Teachers and employees argue that LO is very important applied to every organization, especially in SMK Negeri 4 NEGARA. Priority of LO implementation based on importance level according to teacher and employee opinion are:

  • First Priority is: Vision and Mission

  • The Second Priority is: Decision Making

  • The Third Priority is: Organizational Culture

  • The Fourth Priority is: Creativity and Innovation

  • The Fifth Priority is: Motivation

  • The Sixth Priority is: Education and Training

The priorities expressed by employees and teachers differ in the fifth and sixth priorities. The priority of the relima in the opinion of teachers and administrative personnel for the level of importance is Motivation. They think so because education and training are things that can be done after being motivated and in the motivation of education and training.

But this difference of opinion is not a thing to be wiped because these differences can further trigger the increase in the quality of human resources. This means that they are able to argue that they can be involved in decision making problems and want to learn in the organization.

  1. Conclusion:

  2. Conclude:

The result of the research shows the existence of similarities and differences of assessment and opinion of teachers and administrative staff about the implementation of Learning Organization run by the Principal and based on the importance level. The first to fourth sequence, teachers and administrative staff assess and argue the same, but on the order of the fifth and sixth there are differences in assessment and opinion of the Principal and the level of importance.

Based on the reference theory proposed by Luthans, the relevant elements that underlies the development of Learning Organization in a learner organization are formed from three dimensions: 1) The presence of creative tension consisting of elements of vision difference with reality, critical reflection, and opposition to the limitation of a thing or openness, 2 ) Thought System, consisting of elements of vision, thinking and openness, 3) Cultures that facilitate learning which includes the elements of advice, empowerment, team work, and empathy.

Of the three elements if described then the order of elements based on this theory are:

  1. Vision with reality, critical reflection, and opposition to the limitation of a thing or openness (there is an element of Vision and openness in decision making)

  2. Thought System, which consists of elements of vision, thinking and openness (there is an element of thought or creativity and openness in decision making)

  3. Cultures that facilitate learning that includes the elements of advice, empowerment, team work, and empathy (there is an element of organizational culture, empowerment which means creativity and development through education and training, suggestions open means, team work means cooperation, and empathy or attention through motivation .

Of the three elements, then filtering of variables relevant to this research are:

  1. Vision and Mission1. Vision and Mission

  2. Openness in decision making2. Openness in decision making

  3. Creativity and Innovation3. Creativity and Innovation

  4. Organizational Culture4. Organizational Culture

  5. Education and Training5. Education and Training

  6. Motivation6. Motivation

Suggestions:

In theory, Vision and Mission ranks first. Every organization that wants to run its business successfully, then the main thing to do is to formulate a vision and mission that describes the goals and targets to be achieved by the organization. Without Vision and Mission then the organization has no clear and definite direction. Because in the Vision and Mission contained goals that achieved by the organization. Once the organization has clearly defined its Vision and mission, than determine what needs to be done to achieve that goal by collecting ideas or good thoughts for joint decision-making. In making decisions about the action to be done there needs to be openness of all the elements involved.

Based on this decision then all the actions done to achieve the goal. Actions can be pursued with the creativity and innovation that exist in human resources as the actor and achiever of the goal. With high creativity then the goals of the organization will be easily achieved. To develop high creativity, need environmental support especially strong organizational culture. Organizational culture that reflects the characteristics and identity of creative organizations to achieve goals. Organizational culture becomes an element supporting the achievement of organizational goals. The stronger the organizational culture is, the easier it will be to achieve organizational goals.

Furthermore, to achieve the goal requires good human resources, so it takes education and training as a form of development of quality resources. Quality resources can be established through the provision of proper education and training. If education and training can be done well then the human resources created will be good. Once resources are able to achieve what goals the organization wants, to remain capable of maintaining the quality of resources needs to provide stimuli that can continue to drive human resources to achieve goals. This stimulation is called motivation, either from within themselves or from outside themselves.

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