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Title : An Online Study Based on Self-Perception of Electronic Devices and Media Platform Addiction





Abstract

Studies have shown strong association between electronic gadget users and their addiction, especially among mobile users with digital dependencies. The present study extended the research by exploring the contrivances underlying these associations.
Purpose: This study examines digital technology and human behaviour and its linkage with mobile and computer usage. Next, it closely examines its relationship to social media platforms. Finally, it focuses on how this affects mobile and media addiction or dependency towards its user.
Methods of Research: The questions were selected based on self-perception dependency scale and mobile addiction scale. Online Google form was used as a platform to prepare survey questionnaire. Students and teachers from Allahabad and Delhi-NCR region were selected for the pilot study. Ages ranged between 15 to 75 years. A total of 120 respondents were requested for participation of whom, 118 (98%) returned the filled questionnaire. The internal consistency as assessed by Cronbach’s alpha was 0.837 in this study using SPSS software.
Result: The use of electronic devices are becoming an eminent part of our lives, due to ever changing technology towards – touch screen, high definition resolution, faster processor ,increased memory and many more features; it makes the electronic devices convenient to perform day to day tasks at greater ease and speed. 56.8% respondents stated that they are dependent on electronic devices, since there are many forms of electronic devices present with an individual. One electronic device can be substituted for another for which reason there is dependency on electronic devices at any given point of time. The use of mobile is exponentially increasing in relation to other electronic gadgets. There is a higher frequency for checking mobile during incoming notification (34.7%); Checking mobile every 5- 15 minutes is mainly due to the ease of using mobile phone in our daily lives. Compared with laptop or desktop computer users; mobile phone users are more dependent and possessive towards their mobile as compared to other electronic devices.

Introduction:

Digital technology and human obligation for using them are in symbiosis in our present generation. The present trend in global communication technology has seen a change from computer-based communication to mobile phone communication. The downside is a dependency of these technologies without which our day to day activities are hindered. In the last 20 years with advanced computing facilities, smartphones have come into the market. About 85% of all smartphones globally is powered by Android. According to Indian Telecom Subscription Data- India mobile phone subscriptions have grown to -1,162,470,432 for a population of 1,311,050. I.e. for every 100 people / approximate 90 mobiles present (89.81%) ( TRAI, 2017 ). The ability to access internet anytime on mobile phones, allows using social media applications online, thus increases internet and mobile phone usage. There are benefits of using technology such as computers, tablets, mobile which makes life easier and simpler. From simple calling, voice calling or video calling; to text messaging and instant message; to gather online information or online contact through the social network, all of them to give an opportunity to keep us digitally updated. In addition to telephony, modern-day mobile phones also support a wide range of other services such as text messaging, email, internet access, short-range wireless communications (infrared, Bluetooth), business applications, gaming and photography ( Acharya, Acharya, & Waghrey, 2013 ). Smartphones with advanced computing facilities have come into the market. A breakthrough invention of internet, computers, mobiles, tablets, smartphones, and smart gadgets - the list is going on as the craving for new and better technology is a race against time. Techno giants are making every effort to inevitably plug our lives into technology and there is no escape from it.

In brutally, the present Darwinian nature of technological evolution makes us acquire, adopt and adapt towards it. Search engines redefined the use of gathering information from the internet. Mobile phone use is near universal in teenagers. Despite the growing number of mobile phone users, there has been a limited examination of the behavioural effects of mobile phone usage on adolescents. The overuse of mobile phone is mainly contributed due to the presence of internet. The present generation is craving for high-speed internet which allows them to spend more time online. Xi Lu stated the prevalence of ‘‘light Internet addiction’’ and ‘‘severe Internet addiction’’ were 33.7% and 6.1% for men whereas they were 24.6% and 1.8% for women ( Lu, Watanabe, Liu, Uji, Shono, & Kitamura, 2011 ). In present society, excessive use of mobile phones has become an addiction. The ability to access the Internet anytime on mobile phones, allows using social media applications online, thus increases Internet and mobile phone usage. Some researchers are convinced that we are facing an addiction unlike any other ( Fidan, 2016 ). The use of cell phones has increased since they have become more affordable and easily available. Studies have shown a strong association between electronic gadget users and their addiction, especially among mobile users with digital dependencies. The present study extended the research by exploring the contrivances underlying these associations.

Aim:

This study aims towards the use and dependency of mobile and computers in our daily life

Purpose:

This study examines digital technology and human behaviour and its linkage with mobile and computer usage. Next, it closely examines its relationship to social media platforms. Finally, it focuses on how this affects mobile and media addiction or dependency towards its user.

Methodology:

The questions were selected based on self-perception dependency scale and mobile addiction scale ( Fidan, 2016 ). Online Google form was used as a platform to prepare survey questionnaire. The questionnaire was sent using email and WhatsApp platform. Students and teachers from Allahabad and Delhi-NCR region were selected for the study. Ages ranged between 15 to 75 years. A total of 120 respondents were requested for the participation of whom, 118 (98%) returned the filled questionnaire.

Statistical Data Analysis:

Data entry and statistical analysis were done using SPSS 16.0 statistical software package.

Data were presented using descriptive statistics in the form of frequencies and percentages for qualitative variables. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was calculated to assess the reliability of the developed tools through their internal consistency. As expected almost all the variables were significantly correlated with each other. The final questionnaire consisted of 34 items (n=118) and had high internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.83).

Descriptive Analysis:

The study sample involved 118 participants. It was observed, that majority of participates were of age group between 21- 30 years (45.8%) and age group 31- 40 years (38.1%). The findings indicated using of the following by: - majority of the participants used mobile phone from 30 minutes every day (37.3%) to more than 6 hours every day (30.5%) in relation to using laptop to some extent sometimes in a week (30.5%) to 30 minutes every day (18.6%). Least of all in using desktop form sometimes in a week (22%) to 30 minutes every day (12.7%) (Figure-1). There is a rise in digital exchange of photographs in recent times 46% participants use mobile in watching and taking photos. Taking photos from mobile has increased since the mobiles have a better quality of the camera on the phone. Balakrishnan J stated that as with internet addiction, recent research has begun to empirically validate selfie existence as an addiction. Selfie-taking has become a major leisure activity with the help of enhanced social media functions. ( Balakrishnan & Griffiths, 2017 )

Figure 1 Frequency of the Following Electronic Devices

(Figure-1)

This survey showed that participants spend their time in messaging using mobile varied from 30 minutes every day (37.3%) to more than 4 hours every day (13.6%). This was contributed due to extensive use of Whatsapp platform and other messaging platforms. Watching video content on mobile varied from 30 minutes everyday video (31.4%) to 1-2 hours every day – video (22%) (Figure-2). Online video content sites such as YouTube media platform has increased. Watching video mostly while travelling by younger generation is on the rise. Ease of watching video content on smartphones anytime anywhere resulted in no longer waiting in front of the television to watch the same. Tasuku Igarashi stated that there is a rise particularly with the younger generation with dependence on the mobile phone and induces abuse towards its usage. (Igarashi, Motoyoshi, Takai, & Yoshida, No mobile, no life: Self-perception and text-message dependency among Japanese high school students, 2008). This was relevant to the present study based on the feedback from the participants. In the present study majority of the participants had an optimistic approach towards using their mobile phone even though they did agree to be dependent on them.

Figure 2 Frequency of Using Mobile for the Following

(Figure- 2)

Participants were asked about the frequency of using laptop/desktop. The majority of participants in the survey who used laptop or desktop were mostly associated with academic purposes or office work. Marta Beranuy found that since mobile is becoming convenient – use of laptop and desktop is declining – except for daily office work ( Beranuy, Oberst, Carbonell, & Chamarro, 2009 ). Maryam Amidi Mazaheri stated that educational institutions such as schools and universities should try to develop new teaching concepts to educate the students to use internet and electronic devices meaningfully and correctly ( Mazaheri & Najarkolaei, 2014 ).

In this study checking mobile during every notification (34.7%) to every 5-15 minutes (24.6%) was associated with difficulty in controlling for not using their mobile phone (Figure- 3). The present trend is using internet via mobile phones. There are hosts of media platforms which are used on the mobile on daily basis. The overuse of mobile phone is mainly contributed due to the presence of internet. The present generation is craving for high-speed internet which allows them to spend more time online. Xi Lu stated the prevalence of ‘‘light Internet addiction’’ and ‘‘severe Internet addiction’’ were 33.7% and 6.1% for men whereas they were 24.6% and 1.8% for women. There were no cases of ‘‘sever text-message addiction’’. Although several factors that reflected the unhealthy use of the internet and mobile phones were considered a major health issue in Japan. As a medical condition associated with both internet dependency and text-message; depression was evident among the participants ( Lu, Watanabe, Liu, Uji, Shono, & Kitamura, 2011 ).

Figure 3 Frequency of checking mobile phone

(Figure-3)

Nathan and Zeitzer found that there is a need for teenagers to keep their mobile accessible all the time. Withdrawing the use of mobile phone awakened the mobile users often at night. It was evident that there was a constant struggle between the mobile users and their daily routine. The constant use of the mobile made them unaware of the time be it daytime or midnight, checking the mobile phone became a priority ( Nathan & Zeitzer, 2013 ). This survey showed that participants who spend their time in messaging using mobile varied from 30 minutes every day (37.3%) to more than 4 hours every day (13.6%). There was an extensive duration of using WhatsApp from 6-9 hours every day (11%) to more than 9 hours every day (11.9%) (Figure-4). Similar study results demonstrated by Tasuku Igarashi stated that using text messaging has become an unconscious and automatic process. (Igarashi, Motoyoshi, Takai, & Yoshida, No mobile, no life: Self-perception and text-message dependency among Japanese high school students, 2008) In the present study watching videos are gaining popularity especially due to YouTube media platforms.

Figure 4 Frequency of Using Following Media Platforms

(Figure-4)

Study conducted by Chóliz M. stated that teenagers showed symptoms related to the dependence disorders, such as: excessive use of electronic gadgets, problems associated to communication with patents, difficulty in controlling the use of electronic gadgets, non-compliant with household chores and other activities, emotional discomfort in regard to not using mobile phone (Chóliz, 2012). The above problems are directly responsible due to the current use of broadband and wifi access, which allows for faster internet transmission and thereby opens up even more aggressive conditions; it is becoming worldwide phenomena. The number of mobile phone users has been increasing at an astonishingly rapid pace. The use of electronic devices is becoming an eminent part of our lives due to ever-changing technology towards – touch screen, high definition resolution, faster processor, increased memory and many more features. It makes the electronic devices convenient to perform day to day tasks at greater ease and speed. 56.8% respondents were dependent on electronic devices, as there are many forms of electronic devices present with an individual. Evidently 42.4% were dependent on an overall media platform as there are more options to use. One electronic device can be substituted for another for which reason there is a greater dependency on electronic devices at any given point in time. Acharya JP stated among college students headache (51.47%) was found to be the commonest symptom followed by anger and irritability (50.79%) while using cell phones. Other common mental symptoms included lack of concentration and poor academic performance, insomnia, anxiety etc. Among physical symptoms found frequent were –body aches, eye strain, digital thumb ( Acharya, Acharya, & Waghrey, 2013 ). The use of mobile is exponentially increasing in relation to other electronic gadgets. 34.7% of participants stated there is a constant need for checking mobile during incoming notification. 24.6% had to check mobile every 5- 15 minutes. This was mainly due to the ease of using mobile phone in our daily lives. The study recommends further research is needed to elucidate the impact of the use of mobile phone educational applications on their learning process.

Conclusion:

The use of electronic devices are becoming an eminent part of our lives, due to ever-changing technology towards – touch screen, high definition resolution, faster processor, increased memory and many more features; it makes the electronic devices convenient to perform day to day tasks at greater ease and speed. 56.8% respondents stated that they are dependent on electronic devices, since there are many forms of electronic devices present with an individual. One electronic device can be substituted for another for which reason there is a dependency on electronic devices at any given point in time. The use of mobile is exponentially increasing in relation to other electronic gadgets. There is a higher frequency for checking mobile during incoming notification (34.7%); Checking mobile every 5- 15 minutes is mainly due to the ease of using mobile phone in our daily lives. Compared with laptop or desktop computer users; mobile phone users are more dependent and possessive towards their mobile as compared to other electronic devices.

Bibliography:

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Article Details

Issue: Vol 9 No 06 (2018)
Page No.: 20438-20446
Section: Engineering and Computer Science
DOI: https://doi.org/10.15520/ijcrr/2018/9/06/518


 How to Cite
Banerjee, S., & Gupta, N. (2018). An Online Study Based on Self-Perception of Electronic Devices and Media Platform Addiction. International Journal of Contemporary Research and Review, 9(06), 20438-20446. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.15520/ijcrr/2018/9/06/518

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