In this age of globalization, organizations want to grow and develop in accordance with the demands of the changing environment. As a result, organizations are defining values, mission and vision that create the sense of who they are and what they stand for, as well as developing a workforce who are committed with no intention of leaving the organisation. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between organizational culture and turnover intentions in Ghana. The study was quantitative in nature and a cross-sectional survey design was used to obtain data from respondents. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the respondents. Simple regression was used as the main statistical tool for data analyze. The findings of the study indicated an inversely related association between organizational culture and turnover intention. The study recommends that management must develop beliefs, norms and values that all employees can identify with and appreciate at the workplace to retain the human resource.
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Tharp ( 2009 ) asserts that organisational culture is increasingly understood as a company asset that can be used to increase business performance and influence work attitudes. Management are therefore paying attention to its organizational culture, which is a set of values, beliefs, and attitudes among members of the organization ( Darmawan, 2013 as cited in Hakim, 2015 ) in order to develop an organization that has the competitive advantage of value-based. Dwirantwi ( 2012 ) describes organizational culture as the attitudes, experiences,
beliefs, and values of the organization, acquired through social learning that control the way individuals and groups in the organization interact with one another and with parties outside it. Thus, culture at the workplace, is an invisible but very powerful force that influences the behaviour of people and dictate how they dress, act and perform their jobs. This implies that every organisation has its own unique personality as humans do and is consciously and deliberately cultivated and passed on to incoming employees. The most important thing about culture is that, it is the only sustainable point of difference for any organisation ( Rick, 2015 ) as well as the glue that bonds an organization together. An organization’s culture may make that organization more or less an attractive employment prospect to different individuals based on each person’s value structure ( Emerson, 2013 ) as people tend to seek out and self-select organizations that epitomize their personal values and morals. Thus, organisational culture has important effects on the employees behavior such as turnover intention.
Turnover intention is defined by Curtis ( 2016 ) as a measurement of whether a business or organisation’s employees plan to leave their positions or whether that organisation plans to remove employees from positions. Turnover intention, like turnover itself can be either voluntary or involuntary. Voluntary turnover intention occurs when the employee perceives another opportunity (that is more pay, more recognition or a more convenient location) as better than his current position. It can also occur when the employee has to leave for health or family reasons. If an employee plans to retire from a position, that’s voluntary turnover intention, too. Voluntary turnover can also be functional or dysfunctional for the organisation ( Kimazi & Schope, 2012 ). Turnover is said to be functional when the employee’s departure benefits the organisation while it is as well easy to replace him/her. It is also functional when the resulting difference in workforce value is positive and high enough to offset the costs of transacting the turnover. On the other hand dysfunctional turnover occurs when the employee’s departure negatively affects the organisation because he/she is considered as highly skilled and a high performer to the extent that it might be difficult to replace him/her. In addition, turnover is dysfunctional when the resulting difference in workforce value is negative or the positive change in workforce value doesn’t offset the costs. Although dysfunctional turnover is associated with a number of negative consequences such as loss of firm specific human capital which employees are said to have accumulated during their employment with that particular organisation, it is also beneficial to the organisation. When departures are related with employees whose performance have burned-out or employees that have developed a negative ideology about the job or the organisation, the continued stay of such employees may affect the motivation and output of the rest of the employees. In this sense, employee departure is considered to be functional based on the assumption that replacements will add more value to the job or the organisation compared to the replaced employee(s). Involuntary turnover on the other hand occurs when the employee leaves the organisation through disengagement, retirement, layoff, death among others ( Kimazi & Schope, 2012 ). Organisational plans to eliminate positions due to economic pressure or downturns in business also constitute involuntary turnover intentions.
Quantitative method was employed as a result of the philosophical basis this study was grounded on (that is positivism). Bhattacherjee ( 2012 ) indicated that quantitative method ensures objectivity in interpretation of responses through a standardized measure. This study adopted a non-experimental design of cross-sectional survey since data were collected from samples chosen from the population to discover the interrelations between the variables. The population for this study consisted employees of Economic and Organised Crime Office. Simple random was employed to allow all employees to have an equal chance of been selected. In EOCO, a total nationwide population is 419 employees. From Krejcie and Morgan’s ( 1970 ) table, a sample size of 201 is a good representation of the 419 target population. Thus, two hundred and one (201) employees were sampled from around the country.
Standardized questionnaires were the principal instrument used to evaluate the research objectives and hypotheses in this study. Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI) developed by Cameron & Quinn ( 1999 ) was adapted and edited to measure existing culture in the organisation. The instrument has been widely used in articles and journals, as such, found to be effective in organizational culture change and on identification of culture types related to organizational effectiveness. Items have been used by Choi, Seo, Scott & Martin ( 2010 ) in their study which yielded a 0.79 to 0.92 alpha value. Also, the reliability coefficient for the scale is reported to be 0.67 in a study by Elemary ( 2013 ). Some of the items are “The organization is like an extended family where people share a lot of themselves”. A Likert Scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) was used to measure the responses. Cohen and Golan ( 2007 ) turnover intention scale was adapted. The standardized scale included items such as “I think a lot about leaving this organization; as soon as it is possible, I will leave this organization”. Primary data was gathered with the aid of a structured questionnaire in retrieving first-hand information from respondents in EOCO. Questionnaires were distributed to employees (respondents) at the head office and by post to the regional offices for commencement of data collection. Linear regression was the statistical tool to measure the effect culture has on turnover intention. In the conduct of this study, key ethical considerations were observed; first, respondents’ informed consent was solicited and were briefed on the purpose of the study by the researcher. Second, privacy of respondents was strictly observed. Third, to guarantee confidentiality and anonymity, certain sensitive questions like the names of the respondents, religious background and telephone numbers were excluded in the demography.
Data Analysis Results:
Figure 1 Figure shows the progress of the system
Conclusion, Recommendation and Future Studies:
This study was conducted to examine the associations between organisational culture and turnover intentions. Findings revealed that organisational culture and turnover intention was reported to be significantly negative in this research. This implied that as knowledge sharing, organisational citizenship behaviour and organisational support increased the intention to quit the organisation decreased. The study recommends that, organisations must develop beliefs, norms and values that all employees can identify with and appreciate. This will enable employees develop a sense of belongingness which will make them committed to the organisation and subsequently decrease their intention to quit. Second, there should be a learning culture, job involvement and beneficial exchanges so that employees will always have the desire of staying with the organisation. Lastly, the norm of reciprocity between employers and employees must be created as the relationship will evolve over time into trusting, loyal, and mutual commitments. Future studies should expand the study by incorporate potential moderators like job satisfaction in future studies. Also, comparative study (public and private sector) can also be explored in future studies.
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