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Positive Internet Literacy as a Media for Character Education

Abstract

The era of melinium is a global information transformation event that focuses on promoting online interaction. All the needs of our lives become facilitated and we feel spoiled because it is very fast to get information. A place that provides free internet and waifi services is very available. Communication vehicles such as Mobile (HP) are very easy and inexpensive to get by the public. The problem is, HP is not only used by adults but also school-age children. The internet provides a variety of positive and negative information. Whereas elementary school age children are not mature enough to make a selection of various information that has a negative impact.
Mahasaraswati University (Unmas) Denpasar Regional Partnership Program (PKW) team looked at this problem by providing assistance to provide positive internet literacy in the hope of guiding students to good behavior as a basis for character education. The problem formulated is whether positive internet literacy can be a vehicle for character education for elementary school age students? The method of mentoring in the form of counseling, and training to students in the Semeru cluster in Melaya village and the Tambora cluster in the village of Candikusuma in Melaya sub-district includes 15 elementary schools. Students in primary school age are individuals who are potential, talented, creative and willing to try something very high.
Through mentoring it can be seen that students are very enthusiastic, interested and able to learn and access positive information for development and support the learning process. Through positive internet literacy students can understand that the internet provides an opportunity to absorb a variety of positive information. This psychological atmosphere is a strong foundation for character building for elementary school students. The interesting thing is the support of schools, committees and supervisors by increasing internet interpretation, library application facilities and mentoring from educators and stakeholders.

Introduction:

The nation's character education movement has been poured in Indonesia as the policy of the Republic of Indonesia government. Character education policy is increasingly becoming a commitment in fostering the nation's children with the Republic of Indonesia Presidential Regulation ( PerPres ) Number. 87 of 2017 on September 6, 2017 concerning Strengthening Character Education (PPK) ( Republic of Indonesia State Gazette number 195 ). The PerPres is part of the National Movement for Mental Revolution (GNRM) which is expected to give birth to a cultured nation through the strengthening of the values ​​of the Indonesian character ( Lam, 2000 ; Gee, 2003 ; Jewitt, 2008 ; Damanik, 2012 ; Ulinuha, 2013 ; Strasburger et .al, 2013 ; Susena and Lestari, 2017 ; Santosa, 2015 ; Kaliky, 2016 ; Fitri, 2017 ; Dalton, 2017 ).

The issue of strengthening national character education is sticking out among the community and educators when faced with social phenomena such as drugs, free sex, gang relations, and increasingly widespread among school-age children who have been active to access various information via the internet using cellphones (Garrison and Cleveland-Innes, 2005; Boyd and Elison, 2007; Rustaman, 2011; Anggraini, 2016; Abidin, 2016). Especially if faced with problems so smart people both children who are growing and adults accessing sites that are not feasible for the development of the nation ( Suler, 2004 ; Dwi, 2017 ; Agung, 2017 ; Komara, 2018 ). This anxiety among the community and educators, especially the use of cellphones among students can be accepted as an objective reality, because the use of cellphones in the community is a turquoise technology that is very fast spreading ( Steinkuhehler, 2004 ; Huda, 2016 ; Gustini and Mulyana, 2016 ). Many factors support, at least the HP is no longer a luxury item because in addition to the cheap price, the item is easily obtained by the villagers and the city ( Primawati, 2012 ; Wulandari, 2017 ). This is because the HP counter not only in the city has also penetrated rural markets ( Aliahardi, 2016 ).

Various complaints from the community and especially the educating community towards the phenomenon of students' lack of intelligence in using mobile phones. This was revealed when the Regional Partnership Program (PKW) implementation team in Melaya and Candikusuma Villages in Melaya District, Jembrana District, Bali Province conducted observations to primary schools in Melaya sub-district. There is a discrepancy between perceptions between educators in schools and parents or the community ( Anwas, 2013 ; Briandana and Dwityas, 2016 ). On the one hand, educators forbid students from taking mobile phones to school because they disrupt the learning process ( Siswono, 2012 ; Fitriyadi, 2013 ; Aliahardi, 2016 ; Siroj, 2017 ; Siyamitri, 2016 ; Muhtadi, 2016 ;).

On the other hand, parents argue that giving their children to HP will make it easier to communicate and control the presence of their children. However, parents or the community do not understand how their children behave in using their cellphones (Neuhauser, 2002; Sukasih and Harmanto, 2013; Ellison and Boyd, 2013; Kusumaningtyas et.al, 2014; Al-Dheleai and Tasir, 2017).

The educators view the policies of parents as such as an obstacle in carrying out the task of educators, especially efforts to instill discipline in students. Looking at this phenomenon, the PKW Team took the initiative to find a solution to the problem of educators' concerns about the use of cellphones among students. The solution taken by the PKW team is to provide assistance to students in accessing positive information as a vehicle for character education. It is expected that through this literacy can support the achievement of learning outcomes and build understanding between educators with parents of students.

Based on the description of the background, the problem of this study is whether positive internet literacy can be a vehicle for character education for elementary school age students? In general, the purpose of this study is aimed at understanding the accuracy of students' thinking in accessing information through the internet can influence the character of elementary school students. Specifically to know positive internet knowledge can be used as a vehicle for character education for elementary school students.

There are benefits expected from this study including: First, the PKW Team can add knowledge and references in the field of Education in providing assistance, especially character education for students in the era of information technology to educators in schools. Secondly, for educators in schools it is hoped that the results of this study can contribute in structuring the curriculum by accommodating positive internet literacy as one of the structured learning in the classroom. Third, it is expected that the community leaders will be able to provide knowledge and references in assisting their children, especially in utilizing HP as a facility to access various information to support the achievement of their learning competencies.

Metode Pengkajian:

For the implementation of positive internet literacy for students is carried out by the method:

Counseling; in this case the students are given learning activities from knowing, seeing, reading various instructions to access information that is conducive to the development of students. Also given negative information from the influence of internet usage.

Practice: where students practice ways to access via an Android mobile that can be done by children individually and in groups.

Assistance; The PKW team visits each school constantly by controlling the mobile phones carried by each student, there is a kind of control or sudden examination and provides follow-up if there is a behavior deviation from students.

The PKW Team places emphasis on mentoring methods to be transferred to Educators in Schools and parents to always accompany and remind their children to use HP to improve their values. In this case the presence of educators and parents has a very large role in assisting their children.

Result and Discussion:

Regional Existence:

The existence of Melaya Village and Candikusuma Village is the village of Nyegara Gunung (the village which is near the beach and near the mountains) in the sub-district and the westernmost district of the Province of Bali. The village is unique and multicultural because the community consists of various ethnicities and religions and most of them are migrants from both Bali and outside Bali. The lives of people with diverse cultures, customs and religions have been carried out by the community for generations and the bonds of mutual friendship / grief (family ties and interaction about society) went very well. Both Melaya villages have 8 (eight) elementary schools which are members of the Semeru cluster and Candikusuma village has 7 (seven) elementary schools that are members of the Tambora cluster. The existence of an elementary school in Melaya village is spread in 10 (ten) banjars and in Candikusuma village is spread into 5 banjars.

Internet Literacy Scientific Approach Learning Models:

In the learning process, it will be more meaningful if educators can explore and actualize the assets that exist in students. Both physical and non-physical assets contribute to students' learning progress. DePorter in his study of Quantum Learning (in Dryden and Vos. 2004: 314) states that the most valuable asset in one's learning process is a positive attitude. It should be started from a good state with the students' goals and knowledge and well-positioned students.

Mentoring programs in the form of positive internet literacy by the Denpasar PKW Team of Mahasaraswati University ( Unmas ) gives an approach by changing the atmosphere of ordinary learning with a new atmosphere that is interactive, collaborative and global. Monotone learning centered on teacher centering is not appropriate today. In this case the PKW Team not only laid the foundation for learning from creativity but how this new learning put forward and laid a strong foundation for interactive multimedia learning and network communication. Thus, the positive attitude of students about the use of learning media with information communication networks or the internet is a great asset that students must possess. Where possible, students will not only be smart and excel but be born as strong competitors to enter the world of global competition. The superiority of the internet can turn a person into a global life, personal, interactive, inexpensive and constantly evolving (Hammond, in Dryden and Vos. 2004: 470).

Changing the mindset of students to build meaningful learning strategies towards constructive change is very important. This change is not temporary but a permanent change, so that it becomes a habit as a basis for character formation. Because of that change involves all aspects of behavior, directed and purposeful. Early childhood is a very good time to start forming a positive attitude. Age of students at the basic education level has characteristics that are interested in practical, realistic, want to know and want to learn, need a reference pattern, and tend to be more interested in their peers and like intellectual work (Djamarah 2003: 89-91). On the other hand, the life of global information flow provides opportunities for students to obtain information that is accessed from the internet is very diverse. It is worrying about verbal information and images that are less pedagogical. In this case Educators or parents of students should create an atmosphere of learning (education) that provides space for students to express their attitudes, interests, and problems they face ( Wahab. 2009 ; 12 ).

It is expected that the character learning model is characterized by active student involvement, practice, and the world as a source of information provides meaningful learning. One possible learning model for this is learning with a scientific approach. Learning with a scientific approach illustrates the learning process that is carried out by steps: observing, asking, trying and reasoning. These learning steps cover the dominance of attitudes, knowledge and skills (2013 curriculum). Attitude domains provide opportunities for students to develop the behavior of receiving, running, appreciating, living, and practicing. The aspect of knowledge and skills allows students to observe, ask, try, reason, present, create something, and form networks. Shirley Ririe and Joan Woodbury (in Campbell cs. 2006; 104) state that the use of technology in the learning process is very amazing. Technology can make students become very easy as recipients of information and even develop into active students in learning.

Interesting thing is indeed when learning is based on electronics where students actively physically and non-physically explore cyberspace. In activeness, students can find various concepts, knowledge, communicate by asking, asking for views (sharing information) to make themselves enter the vast world without limits. The intelligence that is expected in the learning process with technology is the ability of students to process various verbal information, images and symbols so that the response is more positive. This is very much related to the formation of personality that is expected in accordance with their competence. Graduates' competencies are strongly supported by aspects of attitudes, knowledge and skills possessed by graduates. The attitude aspect prioritizes the formation of a person of faith, noble, having confidence, is responsible for interacting with the social environment, and the world of work. The aspect of knowledge emphasizes the formation of individuals who master science, technology, art, culture and humanity, nationality, state and civilization. While the aspect of prioritizing skills is the formation of individuals who have the maturity of abstract and concrete thinking accompanied by a commitment to act productively and creatively.

To build intelligence like that is not easy and only expected from the learning process is conservative. There is a need for renewal in the learning process. Educators should have opened themselves up to educational innovation, especially in the availability of innovative learning skills. Learning that prioritizes thinking alone will give less confidence that what learners learn as a truth. Learning should encourage students to understand what other people think and what can be obtained from the success of others. Thinking about not making a mistake again and doing something better, it will be more perfect. It was also felt that the harder the desire to try, the better it would be to do it, to achieve more perfect, two heads were better than one head ( Huber. 2000 ; 52 ). Therefore the source of information becomes very vital in personal formation as expected in the scientific approach. Sources of information from the immediate environment of students are more constructive because of the closeness of feelings between educators and students. The role of educators and parents as the closest environment of students is very dominant in the formation of students' personalities to transfer educative values. Sudono (2000; 63-77) states that the role of teachers, facilitators and parents is very important as a learning resource. Furthermore, it is said that in terms of creativity in general there are no significant differences between students in urban and rural areas. So that intelligence in reading and exploring information via the internet cannot be understood by distinguishing the presence of students from the environment in which they are located. In today's global era the existence of internet facilities and mobile phones has reached the rural environment. So that intelligence to sort and choose various constructive information for the development of students needs to be considered. Learning a scientific approach provides opportunities for students to facilitate access to various information both offline and online. Thus the existence of learning resources such as libraries must be prepared to provide an educational pedagogic source of learning environment for the character building of students. As planning and managing learning resources from the internet is always managed for the positive development of students.

Value of Education and Character Education:

Education as a deliberate effort, realized and planned to develop the potential of students to become human beings who are noble, intelligent, skilled and globally competitive. Education is carried out with awareness and purpose. Education objectives in general so that students reach maturity. Maturity means that students are finally able to be responsible for being characterized by the ability to adapt to their environment. This adaptability means that students internalize various environmental values ​​and norms into themselves. Internalization contains the intention of the ability of students to assess the values ​​and norms found in the community where they are located and then become the basis for forming their personality. Good values ​​developed in the world of education provide intake for the development of students so that it gives birth to intelligence in students. Intelligence intelligence, emotional intelligence, spiritual intelligence, and kenestetik intelligence (Sambiring. 2008; 28-29).

Intelligence intelligence is the ability to think, have commitment, find solutions to problems faced, and be able to take advantage of opportunities. Think about describing the ability of students to be able to know or know something according to the principle of learning to know something (learning to know). Educational values ​​that can be developed from learning behavior include critical thinking, creative, innovative, curious, open-minded, productive, science-oriented, and reflective. These values ​​shape a person to become intelligent. Spiritual intelligence ability in the process of the heart shows the ability of students in a mood (insankamil) so that the pedagogical values ​​that can be produced are personal honesty emitted from noble, responsible, fair, empathetic, never give up, willing to sacrifice, patriotic, and brave accept the risk of his actions. This personal value can build students into character persons by successfully building their identity (learning to be). Emotional intelligence is the ability to process feelings and intentions so that students can show caring, friendly, polite, neat, comfortable, respectful, tolerant, helpful, mutual cooperation, nationalist, cosmopolitan, prioritizing public interests, proud to use language and Indonesian products, dynamic, hard work, and work ethic. This intelligence provides opportunities to maintain social relationships so that they can live together in a multicultural (learning to live together) life. Genetic intelligence is the ability to process the body, exercise, so that it looks healthy, fit and skilled in doing work. The existence of fresh-fit students can show a strong, clean and healthy, disciplined, sportive, reliable, enduring, friendly, cooperative, determinative, competitive, cheerful, and persistent person.

Educational values ​​are transferred to students according to the level of child development. Understanding of educators and parents is very important in the process of value transformation. Parents are first and foremost educators who have a very large role in the development of students. The role of parents puts a solid foundation on the first value of life that will shape the character of the nation's children. In this effort parents not only serve physical needs as well as non-physical development for students. According to Bloom (in Hawadi.2000: 94) states that a number of professionals can succeed in a variety of very large employment opportunities influenced by parental involvement. Likewise, the positive relationship between parents and teachers greatly contributes to the success of students. In this case between schools (teachers) and families (parents) must have similarities and commitments in educating children. Educational values ​​and rules that must be possessed by students must be directed by both parties. If the suitability of both parties is not guaranteed, then the child will experience confusion in determining the decision. Another environment that is equally important is the presence of community leaders who are categorized as educators. Community leaders as models or reference patterns for students to behave. The community is said to be a laboratory that is actually for the development of students. The community environment must provide a conducive atmosphere in accordance with the values ​​and norms developed in schools and families. In the process of internalizing the values ​​and norms to students there is a need for empowerment and civilization. So that it is expected that in students there will be breeding and habituation to do good actions.

Character education involves the process of value transformation, the formation of manners, or morals. Character education aims to develop the ability of students to make good or bad decisions, maintain what is good and implement that kind of goodness in their daily lives wholeheartedly ( National Action Plan for Character Education. 2010 ). Character formation is closely related to one's needs. How can that person meet his needs. Moral issues are certainly a very basic consideration. The psychological atmosphere of a person in making a decision, taking action will be able to give an idea of ​​a person's character. Physical and psychic conditions that are in a state of tiredness will have an influence on a person's character. In a state of exhaustion, many problems that are thought to tend to show an unfavorable character such as ignorance, insensitivity, emotional, anxiety, tension or frustration. Character education requires affirmation or reaffirmation of awareness about his beliefs and the reality of life he faces ( Wijaya. 2007121 ).

Internet Literacy and Character Education:

The internet has become a very broad, fast, easy and practical information and communication media to be accessed by someone. There is an assumption that someone who does not understand information technology is someone who does not see the opportunity to achieve progress. So that many parties to try to understand this information arena are no exception among students. Sometimes to meet these needs, it is often forgotten that children's mental readiness to recognize information media is very open to provide various information. The information available in this media is very diverse in type and nature both constructive and distructive. Positive and constructive information is certainly very beneficial for children's development in fostering their knowledge and competence. In this case the internet can be understood as a very strategic educational medium. To shape the character of the nation's children. Need to be aware of the other side of this media often providing less constructive information such as hoax news, pornography, social conflicts, and the like. Against information that is less pedagogical educative certainly requires the maturity of children in utilizing this information communication media.

There are negative sides to the use of the internet, such as lack of development in the development of child sociality, bullying, slander, individualism, and lack of critical thinking. A child who is addicted to the internet can forget about his environment and tend not to want to examine something by processing his mind but tends to access and accept without correction of explanation on the internet. Even more so at the age of children where age is developing. Mentoring at this time is very important because the age of the child is not mature enough to examine information that can fulfill the task of its development. Indeed at this school age motoric development, thinking, fantasy, and interest in getting to know something is developing well. Basically school-age children show great attention to the outside world, are active, willing to learn and know about something very high, he remembers faithfully, like a small realist. This situation needs to be motivated and keep the child from suggestions and negative suggestions ( Zulkifli, 2009 ; 62 ). The personal and social development of children cannot be equated. Because every student has different sensitivity to each other. In the development process of students there are stages of developmental stages, namely the level of perceptualization, conceptualization, and generalization (Badrujaman. 2011: 34). At the perceptualization level students are on self-awareness about knowledge, skills, values, attitudes for the formation of behavior. The level of conceptualization (conceptual) of students occurs the interaction between themselves and their environment for the purpose that students make choices, make decisions, take action on the environment. Whereas the level of generalization of students is expected to accommodate the demands of their culture and environment by minimizing existing conflicts, feeling self-satisfaction from their interactions with their environment and finally expected to be able to apply competencies in their developmental tasks in new situations.

The positive potential of school-age children is very good and appropriate to give a good and beneficial effect on children's development. School-age children develop various functions such as thinking, critical attitude, creativity, social sense, and achievement motives. This positive potential is very suitable to introduce students to positive internet literacy because it will help develop the mental aspects and character of children. In school-age children creativity is very important to develop children's critical attitude. To develop children's creativity, a kind of game that is positive and constructive is needed for the development of students' development. For school age students, games that encourage creativity and hone thinking skills are knowledge of reading and mastering information technology. Beck (in Hawadi.2002: 114) that in a child's brain there is a mechanism that can be activated. When the mechanism is not stimulated by the environment, the mechanism will be difficult to develop and affect the development of the child forever. In order to maintain the creativity of students to develop naturally, a service that is more open, flexible, appreciates the existence of the child with the abilities and results of the work shown by students. There is emotional closeness or similarity of feelings between educators or parents with students and there are certain values ​​that are introduced to become the principles of his life. Equally important is that parents or educators can understand children's needs, making it easy to serve and control them.

Students' knowledge about the process of accessing information and choosing positive information is very important in school age. At least it can prevent students from the negative influence of the internet. Therefore educators or parents can make internet access activities by children as a learning medium to support students' learning achievements. Thus the doubts of educators and parents towards students carrying mobile phones in their daily lives can be minimized. As a learning media, positive internet literacy can become a vehicle for character education or student character. The skills of students to access positive information can motivate their mental and character development. In line with these growths, it can foster character values ​​such as honesty, creativity, tolerance, hard work, discipline, independence, democracy, curiosity, respect for achievement, love of reading, communication and friendship, love for peace, care for the environment, social care responsibility and religious. These values ​​become educational values ​​that must be developed in the education process from the beginning. In this case the importance of providing a conducive environment to be able to give good influence to students. Habituation of students should be prepared with full planning so that students can make learning resources good to meet their needs. This habituation is the commitment of educators and parents in serving students. Provision of learning facilities and infrastructure, an ethical tool that provides clear direction for students to take good actions and according to the values ​​and norms developed by their environment, including policies and togetherness of educators and parents in serving students.

Regarding the management of habituation, assistance from the PKW Team received a very good response. The method of mentoring in providing positive internet literacy to students gets the attention of policy makers in schools included in the Semeru Group and the Tambora Group where this assistance is carried out. The positive response shown by the managers of the Education units in the two clusters was a commitment in the form of a coordination meeting between the Principals with the cluster supervisors, the heads of the Committees and the Guardians of the students. There is a transformation of values, principles and learning processes that are formed from policy makers. This is shown from the follow-up taken in the form of providing and adding bendhwith to increase the internet access power by online students more openly by giving passward. Provision of PC and Laptop computers in the library, provides library applications to facilitate access to library materials by both educators and students, as well as management staff to assist students. The provision of reading rooms in the air-conditioned library provides a more conducive learning environment for students.

Among students because the level of maturity between them is not the same, both in the interest of learning, the ability to understand the internet, the availability of facilities in their homes, including the quality of HP owned is not the same, it is not strange if they show unequal behavior. Therefore, efforts to intervene educators and parents in directing students to transfer this literacy assistance effort are needed. Empowerment efforts by continuous management of education units in the form of management and maintenance of facilities and infrastructure, supervision and assistance to students to access various information related to thematic learning by educators are very important to be well maintained. Likewise, the effort to cultivate or to get a good habit of keeping the policy to access information online in schools is backfire for educators and parents. In this case control and supervision are important as a preventive measure by always checking the HP of students to see the content on their cellphone. So that the use of cellphones and learning efforts of students through positive internet literacy is an innovative action in an effort to bring students towards the Melineal generation.

Conclutions:

The provision of facilities to access various information in cyberspace is very available today. Its existence has penetrated the lives of urban and rural communities that are accessed not only by parents, adolescents and even lower school-age children such as in PAUD and elementary schools. There is a very sharp leap from the perennialist conservative education process to radical progressivism. Perennial Conservative centered on educators and parents by transferring good and right things in the past and tending to educators and parents to preserve this educational style egosentristically.

On the other hand, the development of the melinial era has led people, especially learning communities, to be open and more modern. Zaman delivered students to no longer make parents and educators the main learning resources to get information but before them there were various sources that could be accessed in cyberspace. Moreover, the device to access in the form of mobile phones and the availability of access facilities with waifai without paying already exists in the students' environment. This certainly means good to support learning as long as students access positive content.

Positive internet literacy was carried out by Unmas Denpasar PKW Team in Cluster Semeru in Melaya Village and in the Tambora Cluster of Candikusuma Village, Melaya District, Jembrana Regency, Bali Province as an educational measure to facilitate and intervene in the actions of students in accessing information through internet devices which participants easily freely educate their mobile. This assistance received a positive response both by students and educators and parents / guardians. Interesting and positive things for the Denpasar Unmas PKW Team for mentoring positive internet literacy can reduce the heart's turmoil and disagreement between educators and parents / guardians of students towards the policy of using cell phones in schools. Educators' doubts about deviant behavior as the influence of HP and the support of parents / guardians to their children bring HP to facilitate communication and control well. This is evident in coordination and evaluation meetings between Principals, Teachers, Cluster Supervisors, school committee administrators, and parents / guardians of students walking in a family-friendly manner and welcoming HP as learning facilities for students.

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