International Journal of Contemporary Research and Review 2018-06-20T12:20:34+00:00 ijcrr Open Journal Systems <p><strong><em>Greetings from Ijcrr team</em></strong><strong>.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>Ijcrr is indexed and abstracted in&nbsp;<strong>Chemical Abstracts,&nbsp;&nbsp;Index Copernicus,&nbsp;DOAJ,&nbsp;Open J-Gate,&nbsp;NewJour,&nbsp;Science Central,&nbsp;</strong>and<strong>&nbsp;Google Scholar.</strong></p> <p>Volume Number: 9</p> <p>Frequency: 12 issues per year</p> <p>ISSN: 0976-4852</p> <p><strong>International Journal of Contemporary Research and Review</strong>&nbsp;(Ijcrr) provides rapid publication of articles in all areas of <strong>Medical Sciences,</strong>&nbsp;<strong>Social Sciences,&nbsp; Agriculture, Life Sciences, Biotechnology, &nbsp;Management,&nbsp; Engineering, Mathematics,Technology, Pharmacy, Nursing and&nbsp;Basic Applied Sciences.</strong></p> <p>The journal allows free access&nbsp;to&nbsp;its contents, which is likely&nbsp;to&nbsp;attract more readers and citations&nbsp;to&nbsp;articles published in Ijcrr.</p> <p>We would like&nbsp;to&nbsp;ask you&nbsp;to&nbsp;contribute your excellent papers in Ijcrr. Currently, there are several papers under review consideration for the upcoming issues.</p> <p>&nbsp;<strong>Visit our website:&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;<a href=""></a></p> <p>&nbsp;For Online manuscript Submission &nbsp;<a href="/submit/Submit-Manuscript/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Online Submission</a>&nbsp; &nbsp; or submit through mail id <a href=""></a></p> <p>&nbsp;We thank all the forces with us in the form of editorial board, eminent advisory board, scientific board, referee &amp; reviewers, contributors, academicians, scientists and pharmacy professionals for all their cooperation in achieving a great success.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong>With Best Regards,</p> <p><strong>Dr. Daniel Vivek<br></strong></p> <p><em>Journal Manager </em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> The Parasitological Survey of “Assessment of the Prevalence and Burden of Soil Transmitted Helminthiasis among the three at-risk groups in Bangladesh” 2018-06-20T12:20:33+00:00 Dr. Hasina Nasreen Dr. Jahirul Karim Dr. Mujibur Rahman Dr. Anand Joshi <p>Intestinal worm infestation is a global health problem. Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections form the most important group of intestinal worms affecting two billion people worldwide, causing considerable morbidity and suffering, though entirely preventable. In March 2017, STH Program implemented, for the first time, the Integrated Community-based Survey for STH Program Monitoring (ICSPM). The ICSPM seeks to provide the STH Program monitoring data to improve evidence-based program decision making toward elimination of STH in Bangladesh. Children without Worms provided technical and funding support (with Johnson &amp; Johnson) for the surveys. Firstly, provide statistically valid, district-level estimates of STH prevalence and intensity of infection that are specific to, and representative of key STH at-risk age groups. Secondly, assess potential factors affecting STH infection rates including recent preventive chemotherapy coverage, sanitation coverage, and specific hygiene-related behaviors. STH control activities are more diffuse, aiming to piggy-back de-worming onto existing services such as school health activities; controlling morbidity, rather than eliminating infection, is the stated goal. In order to maximize health benefits to communities, it is vitally important that policy makers and program managers have a clear understanding of STH and implement control programs that allocate available resources in an optimal manner.</p> 2018-06-04T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Water conflict on the Mekong River 2018-06-20T12:20:33+00:00 Nadia Dhia Shkara <p>The study deals with the suffering of the Mekong River, which is of great economic value and one of the most important rivers in the world because it is the main source of food, water and economic opportunities for more than sixty million people living on its banks. It is also home to many endangered animals, plants and fish, (Xinhua) - Mekong has caused disturbing changes caused by deadly fishing, deforestation and construction of huge hydroelectric dams, and many observers say the situation is out of control and could lead to increased civil unrest and protests in states such as Myanmar, Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam and Tibet as a result of this devastating development.</p> 2018-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Characteristics and Socio Economic Activities of Local Communities Living Along the Nguru Wetlands, Yobe State, Nigeria 2018-06-20T12:20:34+00:00 M. Babagana A. Adamu Usman D. D. Amma H. A. G. Ado M. Yakubu Zungum I.U. <p>.</p> 2018-05-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Analysis of Inter Area Power System Oscillation using Eigenvalue Method 2018-06-20T12:20:33+00:00 Mohammad A. ALMa’aitah Tha’er O. Sweidan Mohammed I Abuashour Mohammed Al-Hattab <p>One of the power system crucial problems for stability is the oscillation at low frequencies. The low frequency oscillation (LFO) is a small signal stability of the power system and has a passive impact on the maximum power transfer (load flow) in power systems. The inter area oscillation using eigenvalue method is presented and analyzed by modeling and linearizing the system around the operating point. This paper introduces the inter area oscillation using Eigen value method by presenting and discussing a proposed power system of two-area, 4-machine into two different cases: The first case is the system running without power system stabilizer, and the second case is to deploy the power system stabilizer firstly in area 1 afterwards area 2 and finally in the two areas at the same time. The advantage of the damping of oscillations is found clearly in the system ability to increase the tie-line power flowing in the proposed system. All simulations results are carried out using MATLAB software.</p> 2018-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## An Online Study Based on Self-Perception of Electronic Devices and Media Platform Addiction 2018-06-20T12:20:32+00:00 Satyabrat Banerjee Neena Gupta <p>Studies have shown strong association between electronic gadget users and their addiction, especially among mobile users with digital dependencies. The present study extended the research by exploring the contrivances underlying these associations.</p> <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> This study examines digital technology and human behaviour and its linkage with mobile and computer usage. Next, it closely examines its relationship to social media platforms. Finally, it focuses on how this affects mobile and media addiction or dependency towards its user.</p> <p><strong>Methods of Research:</strong> The questions were selected based on self-perception dependency scale and mobile addiction scale. Online Google form was used as a platform to prepare survey questionnaire. Students and teachers from Allahabad and Delhi-NCR region were selected for the pilot study. Ages ranged between 15 to 75 years. A total of 120 respondents were requested for participation of whom, 118 (98%) returned the filled questionnaire. The internal consistency as assessed by Cronbach’s alpha was 0.837 in this study using SPSS software.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> The use of electronic devices are becoming an eminent part of our lives, due to ever changing technology towards – touch screen, high definition resolution, faster processor ,increased memory and many more features; it makes the electronic devices convenient to perform day to day tasks at greater ease and speed. 56.8% respondents stated that they are dependent on electronic devices, since there are many forms of electronic devices present with an individual. One electronic device can be substituted for another for which reason there is dependency on electronic devices at any given point of time. The use of mobile is exponentially increasing in relation to other electronic gadgets. There is a higher frequency for checking mobile during incoming notification (34.7%); Checking mobile every 5- 15 minutes is mainly due to the ease of using mobile phone in our daily lives. Compared with laptop or desktop computer users; mobile phone users are more dependent and possessive towards their mobile as compared to other electronic devices.</p> 2018-06-06T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Investigating the nexus between Non-Performing Loans in the Nigerian Banking System and Lending to Micro-Small Medium Enterprises 2018-06-20T12:20:33+00:00 Umoren, Aniefiok Akpan Eyo, Emmanuel Okon Akpan, Sunday Brownson <p>Micro-Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) constitute vital ingredients for the lubrication of the development process of any economy. Therefore, Micro-Small and Medium Enterprises are bedrocks of emerging economies as they exact vital roles in promoting and sustaining growth and development.&nbsp; However, in Nigeria MSMEs are facing myriad of challenges and difficulties in funding their activities. Rising trends in Non-performing loans (NPLs) adversely affected availability of loans and advances to economic agents in the Nigerian economy thereby constraining financial intermediation and economic activities hence growth. The study investigated the nexus existing between NPLs in the Nigerian banking system and lending to MSMEs sub-sector in Nigeria from 1981-2015. Time series data used in the study were collected from annual statistical bulletin of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN). These data were subjected to descriptive and inferential methods. The results of the graphical presentations indicated irregular fluctuations in NPLs. The graphs indicated positive trends in respect to lending to MSMEs and the productivity of MSMEs. The estimated OLS results showed negative nexus between non-performing loans and lending to MSMEs. This negative nexus led to concomitant low MSMEs productivity in Nigeria. The study recommended that CBN should increase its financial surveillance over the sectors and also ensure timely resolutions of the NPLs challenges CBN should increase arrays of financial intervention that would address paucity in funds in the MSMEs sub-sector</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2018-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Business Development Independent Populist Economic Owned Enterprises as a Village 2018-06-20T12:20:32+00:00 I Ketut Sunada I Ketut Sandi <p>Bumdes is a village business unit whose&nbsp;capital comes from&nbsp;village-owned&nbsp;funds&nbsp;.&nbsp;The goal is to float the village potential into an independent village.&nbsp;Thus it takes effort and strategic and appropriate tips to achieve that goal.&nbsp;The first tip is to establish a forum for the development of economic networks in this case is the establishment of BUMDES.&nbsp;Some of the things that can be done are: (i) development of human resources capability so as to provide added value in the management of village economic assets, (ii) integrating rural economic products so as to have good bargaining position in market network, (iii) (iv) strengthening village economic institutions, (v) developing supporting elements such as micro-credit, market information, technological and management support, economic infrastructure and communication networks as well as support for guidance and regulation.</p> 2018-06-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Analysis of Service Quality and Promotion on Decision and Satisfaction of Foreign Visitors on Pandawa Beach Ecotourismin Badung Regency 2018-06-20T12:20:31+00:00 I Nyoman Gede Sudiarta I Wayan sujana Anik Yuesti <p>The development of various facilities and infrastructure as well as efforts to improve the quality of service on Pandawa Beach Ecotourismis always done to attract and give satisfaction to the visitors. This study aims to determine the effect of service quality and promotion on visitor decisions and visitor satisfaction as well as to determine the effect of visitor decisions on visitor satisfaction on Pandawa Beach Ecotourism Badung Regency, Bali Province. The variables in this study consistof two independent and two dependent variables. Independent variables in this study are service quality and promotion, while the dependent variables in this study are the visitor decision and visitor satisfaction. The population in this study is foreign tourists who visit the Pandawa Beach Ecotourism. In this research a non-probability sampling method is used, taking anaccidental sampling approach with asample number of 96 respondents. The type of data used is descriptive and quantitative data expressed in 5-Point Likert Scale ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. Methods of data analysis in this study are through descriptive and inferential analysis. Inference analysis uses Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analysis with SMARTPLS 3 program.The result of this study indicates that: 1) Quality of service has a positive and significant effect on the visitor decision with coefficient value of 0,528 and t-statistic value of 6,625.2) Promotion has a positive and significant effect on the visitor decision with coefficient value of 0,246and t-statistic value of 2,843. 3) Service quality has a positive effect on visitor satisfaction with coefficient value of 0,415 and t-statistic value of 4,007. 4) Promotion has no effect on visitor satisfaction with coefficient value of 0,069 and t-statistic value of 0,638 which t-statistic value is under critical value of 1,96. 5) Visitor decisions have a positive effect on visitor satisfaction with coefficient value of 0.389 and t-statistics of 4.422.</p> 2018-06-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Corporate Planning and Its Effects on Customer Satisfaction: A Case Study of MTN Telecommunication Company in North Central Part of Nigeria 2018-06-20T12:20:31+00:00 Aguoru, C.N. Umogbai, M.E. Ozowa, V. <p>The overall impact of corporate planning on customer satisfaction was investigated in MTN as a model of the Nigerian Telecommunication company.&nbsp; The multistage sampling technique was used to select 133 experienced staffs of the organisation who were interviewed across three North Central states.&nbsp; Data was analysed using the multivariate statistical approaches on the SPSS software (20.0 version). As a result, the workforce was dominated by employees between 30-39 years of age (56.2%) and first degree holders (60%). Only 6.2% had postgraduate level of education. Good corporate planning is a major component of the company as all indicators are greater than the 3.5 benchmark on the 5 point Lickert scale used. The organisation allocates adequate resources for strategic plans (4.12) and there is effective corporate communication within the firm which improves its performance (4.13). Also, the company establishes strategy supportive policies and operational procedures that lead to customer satisfaction (4.31). Programs for continuous improvement are in place (4.35). Customers purchase airtime frequently, an indicator of customer satisfaction with the highest mean (2.88) which is above the cut-off point of 2.00 on the 4 point Lickert scale. &nbsp;Other indicators with positive records are reported. However, purchase of data bundle by customers failed to meet the minimum benchmark (1.59). Regression analysis showed that both strategic analysis and strategy implementation of the company positively affect its customer satisfaction. Each independent variable had p-values below 0.05 level of significance from all inferential statistical methods applied.&nbsp; The coefficient of determination of the model was .519. The result implied that 51.9 % of the variation in customer satisfaction was explained by the influence of strategic analysis and strategy implementation. Areas that need urgent attention of the stakeholders are highlighted in the report.</p> 2018-06-14T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) in Tehsil Batkhela District Malakand, KPK, Pakistan 2018-06-20T12:20:31+00:00 Mudassir Khan Shahrukh Khan Shohra Haider Fazal Jalil Muhsin Jamal Aziz Ahmad <p><strong>Background</strong>: Prevalence of Hepatitis C viral infection and its major risk factors has been found out in population of Batkhela, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan by taking number of volunteers from the interested area. HCV prevalence has not been researched in recent time here in this area, so that’s why we contributed.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Ab rapid test cassette serum/plasma (USA) kit has been used for the mentioned purpose following by ELISA and finally PCR to find out active infection of virus. ICT positive individuals were reconfirmed by ELISA and then ELISA positive samples were carefully investigated by RT-PCR for Hepatitis C Virus.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study population was of 770 volunteers belonging to the mentioned area of research, 453 males and 317 females. The overall prevalence was found to be 5.32% of HCV in Batkhela. This prevalence ratio was 3.12% in males and 2.20 % in females. 3<sup>rd</sup> generation ELISA was used to refine ICT positive samples which showed that 37 of the ICT positive samples had antibodies detected by ELISA. To find out active HCV infection, ELISA positive samples were refined by real time PCR which showed 2.98% of prevalence of active HCV infection in Batkhela based on HCV RNA in their blood.</p> <p><strong>Principle Conclusion:</strong> Overall prevalence was found 5.32%, contaminated reused syringes and blades at Barbour’s shop, blood transfusion, surgical operations and unhygienic food in stalls etc were found significant risk factors for acquiring HCV infection. Body weakness and pale yellow skin color was common symptom in HCV positive volunteers. Safe sexual activities, blood screening before donation and sterilizing surgical equipment’s can protect us from Hepatitis C Virus.</p> 2018-06-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Sites Selection for Visakhapatnam City under Vision 2020 Using GIS and AHP 2018-06-20T12:20:34+00:00 Prem Kumar Dara T. Byragi Reddy <p>Municipal solid waste management is considered as one of the most serious environmental and social issue challenging municipal authorities in all major cities in India. The main problem is selecting a suitable landfill site for Solid Waste Management (SWM). Land filling is now accepted as the most widely used method for addressing this problem in all countries of the world. However, appropriate site selection for land filling is a problem in waste management and therefore needs to be addressed. This study aims at selecting a suitable solid waste landfill site for Visakhapatnam City, India for its future needs. A set of four main criteria and 13 sub criteria are considered for identifying suitable sites. The combination of GIS and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) has been used to give weights to different criteria. Relative Importance Weightage (RIW) of each parameter over the other is calculated by pair-wise comparison using the 9-point scale. The suitability index (0.1-0.6) values are determined for five classes (excellent, good, moderate, poor and very poor) for land fill siting. The study also aims at generating an optimal route to the suitable sites identified from the waste transfer station by using Network Analyst module of ArcGIS software such that the total system cost can be minimized.</p> 2018-05-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effects of Green Tea (Sliming Herbal Tea) and Role of Dietary Practice to Reduce Obesity 2018-06-20T12:20:32+00:00 Muhammad Ali Shaikh Shahinur Rahman Mohammad Tanvir Sarwar A. Y. K. Md. Masud Rana Md. Hafizur Rahman <p>Obesity is a cluster of non-transmissible diseases creating a massive socioeconomic and civil health burden in both developed and developing countries. The prevalence of obesity is increased in an alarming rate and one-third of the world’s population carrying obesity. Phenolic compounds from plant sources play a great role on obesity. Green tea or herbal tea that contains four types of catechins reduced cholesterol level through the modulation of bile acid absorption and metabolism.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> the aim of this study was to monitor the effects of green tea and nutritional education about dietary habit on obese persons.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A randomized control trial (n=20) of obese persons were selected as baseline study and a sliming herbal tea (green tea) with nutritional counseling was prescribed for 12 weeks to take regularly for twice in a day. <em>Results:</em> This study showed a positive impact on obese individuals. After 12 weeks intervention, BMI was decreased from 30.94 to 30.57, body weight, body fat and body fat mass were reduced from 72.50 to 71.36 kg, 32.06 to 30.18% and 27.38 to 25.52 kg respectively. Moreover, a dietary practice of high protein diet with low calorie and low fat diet was developed through nutrition counseling at the baseline study. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Obesity management is a combined process. So, green tea with planned diet might be a fruitful effort to reduce body weight, body fat and overall BMI of an obese person.</p> 2018-06-06T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Rethinking Sampling in Grounded Theory: Reflections for Novice Grounded Theorists 2018-06-18T09:25:38+00:00 Henna A. Qureshi <p>Sampling stage for novice grounded theorists is not as well defined as for qualitative researchers.&nbsp; Grounded theorists use theoretical sampling to guide their research.&nbsp; However, theoretical sampling is an enigma for novice grounded theorists.&nbsp; They feel at loss when answer to their every question is theoretical saturation, and they lack the experience to realize that theoretical sampling will itself lead them to answers regarding whom, when and where.&nbsp; The present paper is an effort to guide novice grounded theorists by presenting a multi-layered nested sampling design developed in retrospect to bring to light steps that might be taken before theoretical saturation is achieved.&nbsp; Based on inductive approach, the study was conducted using grounded theory as a tool.&nbsp; The data was collected in 25 semi-structured in-depth interviews with professors and postdocs across Germany.&nbsp; The paper aims to propose a sampling scaffold for theoretical sampling to provide probable steps that novice grounded theorists could keep in mind during sampling stage</p> 2018-06-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Dynamics of Living Subsistence Systems in Merapi Disaster Prone Area and Non-Merapi Disaster Prone Area, Cangkringan District, Sleman Regency, Indonesia 2018-06-20T12:20:31+00:00 Surani Hasanati Alia Fajarwati Estuning Tyas Wulan Mei <p>Merapi is one of the most active Volcano in the world with more than 70 eruptions since 1548. Merapi Volcano Eruption in 2010 was incline destroyed most of the assets, activities or access of households capability by loss of any assets that put the victims at the desperate situation, especially to those who got direct impact of Merapi Volcano Eruption. This research explain how the household that live in KRB (Merapi disaster prone area) and non-KRB developed system for their living subsistence to fulfill the minimum survival subsistence after Merapi Eruption in 2010. This study linked to disaster risk reduction that needed as one of way of mitigation by local people. This research held in selected village that are fix settlement relocation “Plosokerep” in KRB and “Kuwang” in non-KRB, Cangkringan District, Sleman Regency, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Those location is the representative of rural community in Merapi area. The research analysis is descriptive qualitative. The unit of analysis is household. Result shows that living subsistence systems in each household may varied but in general, one village has the likely same system, but differs in KRB and Non-KRB.</p> 2018-06-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##