International Journal of Contemporary Research and Review <p><strong><em>Greetings from Ijcrr team</em></strong><strong>.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>Ijcrr is indexed and abstracted in&nbsp;<strong>Chemical Abstracts,&nbsp;&nbsp;Index Copernicus,&nbsp;DOAJ,&nbsp;Open J-Gate,&nbsp;NewJour,&nbsp;Science Central,&nbsp;</strong>and<strong>&nbsp;Google Scholar.</strong></p> <p>Volume Number: 9</p> <p>Frequency: 12 issues per year</p> <p>ISSN: 0976-4852</p> <p><strong>International Journal of Contemporary Research and Review</strong>&nbsp;(Ijcrr) provides rapid publication of articles in all areas of <strong>Medical Sciences,</strong>&nbsp;<strong>Social Sciences,&nbsp; Agriculture, Life Sciences, Biotechnology, &nbsp;Management,&nbsp; Engineering, Mathematics,Technology, Pharmacy, Nursing and&nbsp;Basic Applied Sciences.</strong></p> <p>The journal allows free access&nbsp;to&nbsp;its contents, which is likely&nbsp;to&nbsp;attract more readers and citations&nbsp;to&nbsp;articles published in Ijcrr.</p> <p>We would like&nbsp;to&nbsp;ask you&nbsp;to&nbsp;contribute your excellent papers in Ijcrr. Currently, there are several papers under review consideration for the upcoming issues.</p> <p>&nbsp;<strong>Visit our website:&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;<a href=""></a></p> <p>&nbsp;For Online manuscript Submission &nbsp;<a href="/submit/Submit-Manuscript/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Online Submission</a>&nbsp; &nbsp; or submit through mail id <a href=""></a></p> <p>&nbsp;We thank all the forces with us in the form of editorial board, eminent advisory board, scientific board, referee &amp; reviewers, contributors, academicians, scientists and pharmacy professionals for all their cooperation in achieving a great success.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong>With Best Regards,</p> <p><strong>Dr. Daniel Vivek<br></strong></p> <p><em>Journal Manager </em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Innovative Publisher en-US International Journal of Contemporary Research and Review 0976-4852 Gender Differential in Access to and Utilisation of Reproductive Health Services among Adolescents in Lusaka <p>Adolescent sexuality and reproductive health has become a global concern in the recent past. Many adolescents face sexual health risks of early sexual debut like sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS, unplanned pregnancies and illegal abortions. The present study was undertaken to examine gender differential in access to and utilization of reproductive health services among adolescents in Lusaka, Zambia. Data was collected by carrying out structured face-to-face interviews with 180 adolescents. Interview guides were used to collect data from 3 focus group discussions comprising 6 adolescents each and 2 key informants (health service providers). This study has established that there are gender gaps in knowledge and utilisation of RHS among the adolescents. The study discovered that more girls than boys were aware of specific types of RHS including family planning methods. It was further discovered that more (23.9%) males than females (21.7%) had utilised family planning methods. The findings further revealed that more (26.4%) female than male (25.3%) adolescents had received RHS. At the same time, the study noted that despite the gender gaps, the level of access and utilisation of RHS among adolescents was low for both sexes. Reasons for low utilisation of RHS included shortage of health services providers, and lack of adolescent-friendly services, adolescents’ preference for service providers of the same sex, age difference between adolescents and the service providers, and distance to the health facility. The study recommended scaling up of adolescent-friendly services; use of brochures and youth magazines to increase awareness of available services for adolescents and sensitisation of health providers, parents, guardians, communities and key stakeholders about RHS for adolescents.</p> Barbara N. Bwalya Thankian Kusanthan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-04-07 2018-04-07 9 04 20416 20429 10.15520/ijcrr/2018/9/04/492 Modelling the Determinants of Price Level in the Nigerian Economy <p>This paper evaluated the deterministic ability of some macroeconomic variables on the Nigeria’s price level (PL) using the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM). Review of relevant literature was thoroughly carried out. The specification of the price deterministic model was consistent with the traditional backward-looking Philips curve, quantity theory of money and the Fiscal theory of the price level. The Johansen cointegration test results provided evidence of a long run relationship among the chosen variables. The VECM results showed that the 2nd lag of PL negatively and significantly affects current PL. The second lag of Real Gross Domestic Product (RGDP) had a positive and significant effect on the current PL. Current exchange rate made a negative and significant impact on the PL whereas exchange rate at lag two made positive and significant impact. Domestic credit positively and significantly affected PL in the first period and positively but insignificantly affected it in the second period. Trade openness had significant and positive impact on PL. Money supply, government expenditure and nominal interest rate had no significant impact on PL. The outcome of all the diagnostic tests supported the acceptability of the model’s results. Based on our empirical findings, we recommend that the Nigerian monetary authority should keep tab on the variables implicated by the model of this study as significant determinants of PL.</p> Kenneth O. Ahamba Augustine C. Osigwe Thank-God C. Onoja Tobechi F. Agbanike ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-04-06 2018-04-06 9 04 20699 20708 10.15520/ijcrr/2018/9/04/489 Analysis of Learning Organization in Dealing a Change of Organizational Environment Based On the Theory of Changes <p>Quickly change to claim every organization to quickly get and adapt with that change, and this change appearance opposed but exactly have to be managed. Ability of each organization in face of this change depends on creativity ability and innovate all organizational member. Creativity and innovate to represent the indicator of organization successfulness which emerge from continuous organization member as individual learn. This ability have to be trained with the process learn continual.</p> <p>Start from phenomenon, embosoming organization in knowledge era and technological, becoming piquancy to be conducted by study at one particular place which it is true seldom be conducted by a study that is at SMK 4 Negara. SMK 4 Negara represent the governmental organization in the field of Education. In education organization, each educator claimed to be non-stop to learn by correspond to the science growth so that able to improve the competitor quality. This matter will be existed if there is willingness from organizational member to study.</p> <p>This research is done at SMK 4 Negara. This Research included in the descriptive research type for the purpose of knowing single variable value. Population in research is all personal consisted of the headmaster, teacher and officer of SMK 4 Negara. The tool analysis in this research is Cross Tabulation. The tool used to show the relation of research attribute cross by calculating score as a whole and AHP for the rank of every variable.</p> <p>Result of research indicate that the Learning Organization ( LO) have been executed at SMK 4 Negara based on &nbsp;pursuant to theory in this research that is execute 6 element LO that is Vision and Mission, Decision Making, Organizational Cultural, Creativity and Innovate, Education And Training, and Motivation. Sixth of elements have been executed at SMK 4 Negara. Execution LO, representing a study process in order to reaching organization target which have been specified. Pursuant to this research result, teacher and administrative personnel assess that Headmaster have executed the Learning Organization with six element developed from theory Luthans. Result of research about opinion learn and administrative personnel to this development LO importance have also supported the execution LO. Teacher And officer have a notion that LO is vital importance applied in each organization specially in SMK 4 Negara</p> I Nengah Sudja I Nengah Suardhika ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-04-06 2018-04-06 9 04 20709 20725 10.15520/ijcrr/2018/9/04/491 Using Data to Drive Instruction: A Comparative Study of Lexia Scores to Other Reading Assessments, Attendance, Grades, and Behavior <p>The purpose of this study is to analyze student progress after the frequent usage of a computerized reading program that provides phonics instruction and gives students independent practice in basic reading skills. Further, the study observes and analyzes the correlation between student progress in Lexia to progress report grades, report card grades, attendance, office referrals for poor behavior, the Fountas and Pinnell Benchmark Assessment System (BAS) scores, Kindergarten Readiness Assessment (KRA) language and social scores, and the Reading Inventory scores (RI).&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Dr. Felicia Sawyer Dr. Bobbie Little Dr. Darlene Cantey Principal Lionel Martin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-04-07 2018-04-07 9 04 20318 20344 10.15520/ijcrr/2018/9/04/493 Effects of the Methanol Leaf Extract Of Chromolaena Odorata on Blood Lipids and the Histology of the Kidney in Salmonella Typhi Infected Wistar Rats <p>Infection with <em>Salmonella typhi</em>, the causative agent of typhoid fever is said to be associated with dyslipidemia. This study evaluated the effects of <em>Chromolaena odorata</em> on the lipid profile and histology of the kidneys in <em>Salmonella typhi </em>infected Wistar rats. The animals were divided into six groups: group 1 was normal control, group 2 was infected with <em>Salmonella typhi</em> without treatment, groups 3, 4 and 5 were <em>Salmonella typhi</em> infected and treated with 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg of the extract, respectively, and group 6 was infected and treated with 500mg/70kg of ciprofloxacin. The animals were inoculated with a single infectious dose of <em>Salmonella typhi </em>bacteria and were subsequently, treated with graded doses of the methanol leaf extract of <em>Chromolaena odorat</em>a and 500mg/70kg dose of ciprofloxacin for a period of seventeen days, when the animals were confirmed infected. The animals were humanely sacrificed using diethyl ether anesthesia and blood sample was collected for lipid profile investigation and the kidneys were harvested for histological examination. <em>Chromolaena odorata</em> administration reversed the dyslipidemia and histological changes induced by <em>Salmonella typhi</em>.</p> Isirima, Joshua Charles Siminialayi, Iyeopu Minakiri ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-04-06 2018-04-06 9 04 20239 20250 10.15520/ijcrr/2018/9/04/490