International Journal of Contemporary Research and Review http://ijcrr.in/index.php/ijcrr <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify;"><em><strong>Greetings from Ijcrr team</strong></em><strong>.</strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify;">Ijcrr is indexed and abstracted in&nbsp;<strong>Chemical Abstracts,&nbsp;&nbsp;Index Copernicus,&nbsp;DOAJ,&nbsp;Open J-Gate,&nbsp;NewJour,&nbsp;Science Central,&nbsp;</strong>and<strong>&nbsp;Google Scholar.</strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify;">Volume Number: <strong>9</strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify;">Frequency: 12 issues per year</p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify;">ISSN: 0976-4852</p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify;"><strong>International Journal of Contemporary Research and Review</strong>&nbsp;(Ijcrr) provides rapid publication of articles in all areas of <strong>Medical Sciences,</strong>&nbsp;<strong>Social Sciences,&nbsp; Agriculture, Life Sciences, Biotechnology, &nbsp;Management,&nbsp; Engineering, Mathematics,Technology, Pharmacy, Nursing and&nbsp;Basic Applied Sciences.</strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify;">The journal allows free access&nbsp;to&nbsp;its contents, which is likely&nbsp;to&nbsp;attract more readers and citations&nbsp;to&nbsp;articles published in Ijcrr.</p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify;">We would like&nbsp;to&nbsp;ask you&nbsp;to&nbsp;contribute your excellent papers in Ijcrr. Currently, there are several papers under review consideration for the upcoming issues.</p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify;"><strong>Visit our website:&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;<a href="http://www.ijcrr.in">www.ijcrr.in</a></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify;">For Online manuscript Submission &nbsp;<a href="/submit/Submit-Manuscript/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Online Submission</a>&nbsp; &nbsp; or submit through mail id <a href="mailto:editor@ijcrr.in">editor@ijcrr.in</a></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify;">We thank all the forces with us in the form of editorial board, eminent advisory board, scientific board, referee &amp; reviewers, contributors, academicians, scientists and pharmacy professionals for all their cooperation in achieving a great success.</p> en-US editor@ijcrr.in (ijcrr) editor@ijcrr.in (ijcrr) Tue, 31 Jul 2018 08:10:53 +0000 OJS 3.1.0.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 ADHD is a Risk Factor of Road Crashes: A Purposive Study of Finding Relation between ADHD and Road Traffic Accident in Bangladesh http://ijcrr.in/index.php/ijcrr/article/view/563 <p><strong>Background: </strong>In Bangladesh fatality rate due to road traffic accidents is rising sharply day by day. At least 2297 people were killed and 5480 were injured in road traffic accidents within 1st six months of 2017.Whereas in the previous year at 2016 at least 1941 people were killed and 4794 were injured within the 1st six months. No survey has been reported in Bangladesh yet correlating ADHD as a reason of impulsive driving which ends up in a road crash.</p> Nusrat Shamima Nur, M. S. I. Mullick., Ahmed Hossain ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://ijcrr.in/index.php/ijcrr/article/view/563 Tue, 31 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Factors Influencing Access to Reproductive Health Information Services among Young Aged 15-24 in Garissa Municipality, Kenya http://ijcrr.in/index.php/ijcrr/article/view/574 <p>Young people face severe threats to their health and general well being. They are vulnerable to sexual assault and prostitution, too-early pregnancy and childbearing, unsafe abortion, malnutrition, female genital cutting, infertility, anemia, and reproductive tract infections (RTIs) including STIs and HIV/AIDS (NCPD, 2006). Close to a half of women aged 15-19 in Kenya are sexually active and by age 20-24 years, almost all (90%) are sexually exposed, and that 84% of the women aged 15-19 are single girls, then a large proportion of never-married girls are in their sexually active period (KDHS,2003).</p> <p>This study was designed to look into demographic, economic, cultural, health factors and the knowledge, attitude and practices influencing the access to Sexual Reproductive Health (SRH) information services amongst the youth of Garissa.&nbsp; The qualitative and quantitative data were collected through structured face to face interviews, focus group discussions and key informant. Data was analyzed using SPSS (version 17). The data from the qualitative methods were analyzed by using the thematic framework analysis. Independent variables influencing the access to SRH information among the youth were determined using multiple logistic regressions.</p> <p>In conclusion the overall access to SRH information by the youth in Garissa Municipality was low and was mostly influenced by the economic factors, cultural, religious and societal norms that marginalize the youth and the overall lack of access and programs to address youth friendly SRH information. To address the challenges in the access to youth friendly reproductive health information in this setting it is our recommendation that improve the Clinical services to offer the youths with Contraceptive and STI prevention services, antenatal, perinatal, and postnatal care, STI diagnosis and treatment and lastly empower youths with RH and rights and HIV information and life skills education through community outreach programmes.</p> Fatuma I. Adan, Dr. M.N. Githae ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://ijcrr.in/index.php/ijcrr/article/view/574 Sun, 12 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge on Use and Effects of Drug and Substance Abuse among Youth Aged 13 To 24 Years in Raila Village, Kibera Slum, Nairobi, Kenya http://ijcrr.in/index.php/ijcrr/article/view/575 <p>Drug and substance abuse is a global problem and is one of the major problems affecting the youth both in school and out of school as a result of drug and substance abuse. The purpose of the study was to determine the knowledge on use and effects of drugs and substance abuse among the youth aged 13-24 years in Raila village, Kibera slum, Nairobi. &nbsp;The study hoped to provide additional information to the already existing records about drug and substance abuse which can be of much importance to future scholars and those interested in researching on the same issue and the relevant authorities like the Ministry of Health to find out the effective measures to put in place in order to solve this issue. The study used a descriptive cross-sectional study design, involving both quantitative and qualitative methods. The sample size used was 87 respondents. Random Sampling method was used to select the 87 subjects. Data was collected through interviewer administered questionnaires containing both open-ended and closed ended questions and data was analyzed through the statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 and Microsoft Excel was used for graphical presentation. The study established that majority of the youth (77) out of the 87 respondents aged 13 to 24 years had adequate knowledge on use and effects of drugs and substances abuse although despite the knowledge, some of them were abusing drugs and substances.&nbsp; The study also found out that majority (50%) of the youth who were abusing drugs and substances were the ones who had completed secondary school education but had not gone to tertiary level and those who did not complete secondary school education. The study recommends continuous awareness programs, creation of opportunities and direct intervention measures in order to address the challenge of drugs and substances abuse.</p> Njiru Zipporah Wawira, Dr. Margaret Nduta, Zipporrah A.H, Gideon M. ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://ijcrr.in/index.php/ijcrr/article/view/575 Mon, 13 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +0000 The Role of Engineers in Combating the Effect of Climate Change in Africa http://ijcrr.in/index.php/ijcrr/article/view/567 <p>This paper presents an overview of the effects of global warming in Africa as it affects our environment. The challenges of climate change were discussed. The paper focuses further on future climate change and variability and their impact on key sectors: water, food security and agriculture, health, and biodiversity and ecosystems. Finally, the paper summarizes the role of engineers in combating climate change, in a bid to control and reduce global warming around the world.</p> Odu Oghenewiroro Godwin ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://ijcrr.in/index.php/ijcrr/article/view/567 Wed, 01 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +0000 The Link between Organizational Culture and Turnover Intention among Employees in Ghana http://ijcrr.in/index.php/ijcrr/article/view/566 <p>In this age of globalization, organizations want to grow and develop in accordance with the demands of the changing environment.&nbsp; As a result, organizations are defining values, mission and vision that create the sense of who they are and what they stand for, as well as developing a workforce who are committed with no intention of leaving the organisation. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between organizational culture and turnover intentions in Ghana. The study was quantitative in nature and a cross-sectional survey design was used to obtain data from respondents. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the respondents. Simple regression was used as the main statistical tool for data analyze. The findings of the study indicated an inversely related association between organizational culture and turnover intention. The study recommends that management must develop beliefs, norms and values that all employees can identify with and appreciate at the workplace to retain the human resource.</p> Theresa Esi Bosomtwe, Bertha Obeng ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://ijcrr.in/index.php/ijcrr/article/view/566 Wed, 01 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Motivation to Employee Performance which was Mediatied by Work Satisfaction in PT Smailing Tour Denpasar http://ijcrr.in/index.php/ijcrr/article/view/569 <p>This study aims is to test and analyze the influence of motivation on employee performance mediated by job satisfaction. This research was conducted at PT Smailing Tour Denpasar with population and research sample of all permanent employees that is 90 people. All data obtained from the kuisoner distribution is feasible to be used, then analyzed using a variance based structural equation model known as Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis. The result of the research shows that (1) the motivation has positive and significant effect on the employee's performance, (2) the motivation has positive and significant effect on the job satisfaction, (3) the job satisfaction has positive and significant effect to the employee's performance; (4) the motivation has positive and significant effect on employee performance through job satisfaction. The implication of this research is that motivation can be improved by taking into account the need for workplace environment to improve employee performance, job satisfaction can be improved by paying attention to the work itself in order to increase employee performance. Employee performance can be improved by taking into account the effectiveness of employees.</p> Benediktus Ignasius Tani Raka, Anik Yuesti, Nengah Landra ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://ijcrr.in/index.php/ijcrr/article/view/569 Mon, 06 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Situational Leadership Style and Compensation to Employee Performance with Job Satisfaction as Intervening Variable at PT Bank Rakyat Indonesia (Persero), Tbk Denpasar Branch http://ijcrr.in/index.php/ijcrr/article/view/570 <p>The aims of study are to examine and analyze the influence of situational leadership style and compensation on employee performance with job satisfaction as intervening variable. This research was conducted at PT Bank Rakyat Indonesia Denpasar Branch Office with population and sample of all employees working at PT Bank Rakyat Indonesia (Persero) Tbk Denpasar Branch Office, which are 64 people. All data obtained from the questioner distribution is feasible to be used, then analyzed using model of structural equation based on variance known as Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis.</p> <p>The result of the research shows that (1) situational leadership impact&nbsp; positive and significant effect on job satisfaction, (2) compensation impact positive and significant effect on job satisfaction, (3) job satisfaction has positive and significant effect to employee's performance, (4) situational leadership has positive and (6) situational leadership impact positive and significant effect on employee performance through job satisfaction, (7) compensation impact positive and significant effect on employee performance through job satisfaction. (5) Compensation have impact a negative effect on employee performance.</p> <p>The implication of this research is that situational leadership can be improved by paying attention to exemplary in order to increase employee performance. Compensation can be increased by paying attention to incentive to sacrifice to increase employee performance. Job satisfaction can be enhanced by paying attention to the superiority of employee's ability to improve employee performance last employee performance can be improved by taking into account the responsibility.</p> RR. Wahyu Setyorini, Anik Yuesti, Nengah Landra ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://ijcrr.in/index.php/ijcrr/article/view/570 Mon, 06 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +0000 The Influence of Leadership and Organizational Climate of Employee Performance through Motivation as a Mediation Variable http://ijcrr.in/index.php/ijcrr/article/view/571 <p>This study aims to examine and analyze the influence of leadership and organizational climate on employee performance through motivation as a mediation variable. This research was conducted at PT Bank Pembangunan Daerah Bali Branch Office Negara with population and sample of research all employees working at PT Bank Pembangunan Daerah Bali Branch Office Negara, which is 61 people. All data obtained from the questionnair distribution is feasible to be used, then analyzed using a variance-based structural equation model known as Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis.The results showed that (1) leadership had positive and significant effect on motivation, (2) organizational climate had positive and significant effect on motivation, (3) leadership had positive and significant effect to employee performance, (4) organizational climate had positive and significant effect on performance employees, (5) motivation has a positive and significant effect on employee performance.The implication of this research is that leadership can be improved by paying attention to information sharing so that employees' performance is increasing, organization climate can be improved by paying attention to commitment among employees to increase employee Performance. Motivation can be improved by taking into account the need for groups to improve employee performance last employee performance can be improved by taking into account the quantity of work.</p> Dewa Gede Anggada Sayoga Diputra ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://ijcrr.in/index.php/ijcrr/article/view/571 Mon, 06 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Students’ Achievement in Mathematics through Systematic and Explicit Instruction, Self-Instruction, Peer-Tutoring and Visual Representation http://ijcrr.in/index.php/ijcrr/article/view/577 <p>The study evaluated students’ achievement in mathematics using four methods of instruction. Sample of the study was 130 Junior Secondary School students from 4 schools in Taraba State, Nigeria. Quasi-experimental design was adopted. Data was generated using Terminal Mathematics Achievement Tests whose reliability indices were computed using Kuder–Richardson (KR – 20) formula. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research question while one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to explore the impact of the instructional strategies at .05 level of significance. Finding revealed no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of students exposed to the four instructional strategies. The study recommended that classroom teachers implement any of these instructional methods in their daily classroom instruction.</p> Ajai, John Tyavbee ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://ijcrr.in/index.php/ijcrr/article/view/577 Tue, 14 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Production of Antimicrobial Textiles by Using Copper Oxide Nanoparticles http://ijcrr.in/index.php/ijcrr/article/view/564 <p>The application of nanoscale materials and structures, usually ranging from 1 to 100 nanometers (nm), is an emerging area of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles for applications such as catalysis, electronics, textiles, environmental protection, and biotechnology is an area of constant interest. Recently, an awareness of general sanitation, contact disease transmission, and personal protection has led to the development of antimicrobial textiles. The development of antimicrobial cotton fabrics using Copper oxide nanoparticles has been investigated in this present work. The Copper nanoparticles were prepared by wet chemical method and were directly applied on to the 100% cotton woven fabric using pad-dry-cure method. The antibacterial activity of the finished fabrics was assessed qualitatively by agar diffusion and parallel streak method, quantitatively by percentage reduction test. The topographical analysis of the treated fabric and untreated fabric were studied and compared. The results show that the finished fabric demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against <em>S. aureus </em>in both qualitative and quantitative tests. The SEM analysis revealed the embedding of Copper nanoparticles in treated fabrics. The wash durability study of the treated fabric was also carried out and found to withstand up to 25 wash cycles.</p> Redwanul Hasan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://ijcrr.in/index.php/ijcrr/article/view/564 Tue, 31 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Hull Cleaning Operation Efficiency in Containing Biological Material http://ijcrr.in/index.php/ijcrr/article/view/573 <p>,</p> Chandra Sekhar Mishra, Zenawi Fitwi, Habtom Imuru ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://ijcrr.in/index.php/ijcrr/article/view/573 Tue, 07 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Theoretical Sampling in Qualitative Research: A Multi-Layered Nested Sampling Scheme http://ijcrr.in/index.php/ijcrr/article/view/576 <p>In qualitative research, novice grounded theorists are aware of expectations to use theoretical sampling yet they have vague idea of how to conduct theoretical sampling. An analysis of sampling pattern of the study using grounded theory and theoretical sampling revealed a systematic sampling scheme employing multiple techniques. The study was conducted using theoretical sampling; twenty-five in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with professors and postdocs across Germany. The analysis established that theoretical sampling is a complex multi-layered nested sampling scheme, which uses multiple sampling techniques simultaneously.</p> Henna A. Qureshi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://ijcrr.in/index.php/ijcrr/article/view/576 Tue, 14 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +0000