International Journal of Contemporary Research and Review <p><strong><em>Greetings from Ijcrr team</em></strong><strong>.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>Ijcrr is indexed and abstracted in&nbsp;<strong>Chemical Abstracts,&nbsp;&nbsp;Index Copernicus,&nbsp;DOAJ,&nbsp;Open J-Gate,&nbsp;NewJour,&nbsp;Science Central,&nbsp;</strong>and<strong>&nbsp;Google Scholar.</strong></p> <p>Volume Number: 9</p> <p>Frequency: 12 issues per year</p> <p>ISSN: 0976-4852</p> <p><strong>International Journal of Contemporary Research and Review</strong>&nbsp;(Ijcrr) provides rapid publication of articles in all areas of <strong>Medical Sciences,</strong>&nbsp;<strong>Social Sciences,&nbsp; Agriculture, Life Sciences, Biotechnology, &nbsp;Management,&nbsp; Engineering, Mathematics,Technology, Pharmacy, Nursing and&nbsp;Basic Applied Sciences.</strong></p> <p>The journal allows free access&nbsp;to&nbsp;its contents, which is likely&nbsp;to&nbsp;attract more readers and citations&nbsp;to&nbsp;articles published in Ijcrr.</p> <p>We would like&nbsp;to&nbsp;ask you&nbsp;to&nbsp;contribute your excellent papers in Ijcrr. Currently, there are several papers under review consideration for the upcoming issues.</p> <p>&nbsp;<strong>Visit our website:&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;<a href=""></a></p> <p>&nbsp;For Online manuscript Submission &nbsp;<a href="/submit/Submit-Manuscript/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Online Submission</a>&nbsp; &nbsp; or submit through mail id <a href=""></a></p> <p>&nbsp;We thank all the forces with us in the form of editorial board, eminent advisory board, scientific board, referee &amp; reviewers, contributors, academicians, scientists and pharmacy professionals for all their cooperation in achieving a great success.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong>With Best Regards,</p> <p><strong>Dr. Daniel Vivek<br></strong></p> <p><em>Journal Manager </em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> en-US (ijcrr) (ijcrr) Wed, 31 Jan 2018 07:56:01 +0000 OJS 60 Effect of Thermocycling on Color Stability of Acrylic Resin Materials Immersed in Denture Cleansers <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To evaluate the effect of thermocycling on the color stability of heat and self-cure resins after immersion in denture cleansers.</p> <p><strong>Material and methods:</strong> Forty-eight disks of heat and self-cure resins were fabricated. The specimens of each material were divided into 4 subgroups (n = 12) and immersed in different denture cleansers (Distilled water {control}, Corega, StainAway Plus and Polident) daily for 1 week and first color measurements (T1) were recorded (before thermocycing). The specimens were then subjected to 5000 cycles of thermocycling and the second color measurements (T2) were recorded (after thermocycling).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A significant increase of color change was noticed in self-cure compared to heat-cure resins after thermocycling (<em>p</em>=0.001). The color change in heat-cure resins immersed in different solutions was insignificant (<em>p</em>&gt;0.05). Whereas, there was significant color changes in self-cure resins among denture cleansers (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05). The mean difference of color change was greater in self-cure resins immersed in Corega (3.93 ± 2.71) and Polident (3.55 ± 2.06) compared to the control group (0.15 ± 1.66) and lower in specimens immersed in Stain Away Plus (1.36 ± 1.60) compared to Corega. There was a significant decrease in the mean of color change after thermocycling in heat-cure resins immersed in distelled water and Stain Away Plus (p&lt;0.05) and in self-cure resins immersed in Corega, Stain Away Plus and Polident compared to color change before thermocycling (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Aging process resulted in a significant color change in self-cure compared to heat-cure resins and the value of color difference was varied according to the denture cleanser used.</p> Ala'a Ibrahim Abou-Obaid ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 06 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Mimosa Pudica on Experimentally-Induced Prostatic Hyperplasia <p>Benign prostatic hyperplasia, a non-cancerous condition of unknown etiology, is the most common prostatic disease in men globally. The present study investigated the possible ameliorative effects of aqueous extracts of <em>Mimosa pudica</em> on experimentally-induced prostatic hyperplasia in Wistar rats.</p> <p>Twenty adult, male Wistar rats weighing 120-180 g were randomly divided into four groups (A, B, C, D) of five animals each. Group A, normal control, was given corn oil only; Group B rats were hormone-treated. Groups C and D rats were hormone and extract treated, and received continuous doses of 300 μg and 80 μg of testosterone and estradiol, respectively, on alternate days for three weeks subcutaneously in the inguinal region. The extract-treated rats received an additional 400 mg/kg b. w and 800 mg/kg b. w. of <em>M. pudica</em> orally for another four weeks. Immediately after induction of benign prostatic hypertrophy, some animals were randomly selected and sacrificed for gross inspection of prostate enlargement, prostate specific antigen analysis (PSA) and sperm count evaluation. These procedures were repeated again after four weeks of extract treatment. The prostates were excised and processed routinely for paraffin embedding and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&amp;E).</p> <p>Results obtained showed significant (P&lt;0.05) reduction in PSA levels, increase in sperm count and also a reversal of histological hyperplastic changes.</p> Arayombo B.E, Adewole O. S., Ojo . S. K, Adelodun S.T, Adefule A. K., Bejide R. A., Salako K. A., Olabanji I. O., Ojewole J. A.O. ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0000 What is actually the warning label on the package of cigarettes? <p>The year 1965 was very significant in the history of the tobacco industry. It was passed Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act, which obliged the tobacco corporations to set up the labels on the health warning on every packet of cigarettes intended for sale in the USA. To remind you, this was passed Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act, which obliged the tobacco corporations to set up the labels on the health warning on every packet of cigarettes intended for sale in the USA. This work examines the real effect of health warning label on the package of cigarettes. Why such a clear and unambiguous warning text has no influence on reducing the number of smokers.  What is the secret of the controversial nature of this label? These are the main questions that this research is trying to resolve. The study involved 50 participants, aged 20 to 40 years, active cigarette smokers  with dominant right hand. EEG recorded respecting the prescribed standard of electroencephalographic scanning.</p><p>Research has shown to what extent the warning label does not affect the smokers to reduce the number of cigarettes but actually incentive the desire to smokers to light up a new cigarette. Conducted  EEG monitoring just proved that the warning label is actually hidden message  which smokers cannot resist, and this is a feature of the first-class subliminal message.</p> Branislav R. Tanasic ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 31 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +0000 The Significance of Recruitment and Selection on Organizational Performance: The Case of Private owned Organizations in Erbil, North of Iraq <p>Recruitment and selection, general seen as a human resource management function, plays a great role in impacting critically on the performance of an organization in terms of achieving its ultimate goal (Costello, 2006). The purpose of this study is to have an understanding of employee recruitment and selection practices and also the organization performance in some private sectors companies in Erbil (North of Iraq). The selected companies that were used to represent the other companies include; two telecommunication companies; Korek and Asiacell Telekom and Darin Group Company. The aim of this research study was to measures the level of effectiveness and efficiency of the recruitment and selection process and organizational performance. This is because the research wants to investigate if the recruitment and selection process is adequate to increase organizational performance of the private sector in Erbil in best possible manner without waste of valuable time and effort. The study also reviews literature on recruitment and selection and equally organizational performance. A total of 363 employees shared their opinions in questionnaires; the data obtained from the survey was analyzed with the use of SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences).</p> Yashar Fadhil Mohammed Harky ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 08 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0000 The Challenge of Implementing Green ICT in Computer Colleges: Improving Initiative and Awareness <p>Implementation of Green ICT awareness for computer college in Indonesia already initiated  by Association of Computer College in 2010, to realize the Green Campus. Appeared several challenges facing the college in raising awareness in applying the activity in college. This initiation should be supported by formal policy by the leadership, to conform with the purpose of the implementation of Green ICT. This policy is continuously disseminated, Green ICT practices performed consistently, as well as in the medium or long-term need to be measured by a variety of methods of measurement. In order for the implementation of Green ICT can efficiently, there needs to be coordination between the IT Division and the person in charge of the computer laboratory which is separate from the part of IT management. So that information about IT masterplan includes laboratory can be arranged properly, so that it can be monitored clearly. This coordination will also help the college in calculating the energy consumption of electricity used by IT equipment, both of which focused on the IT Division and in the laboratory.</p> Mardiana Purwaningsih ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 31 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +0000 The Contribution of Foreign Direct Investment for Economic Growth of Ethiopia: Time Series Analysis Economic growth of countries is one of the fundamental questions in economics. Most African countries are opening their economies for welcoming of foreign investors. As such Ethiopia, like many African countries took measures to attract and improve foreign direct investment. The purpose of this study is to examine the contribution of foreign direct investment (FDI) for economic growth of Ethiopia over the period of 1981-2013. The study shows an overview of Ethiopian economy and investment environment by the help of descriptive and econometric methods of analysis to establish empirical investigation for the contribution of FDI on Ethiopian economy. OLS method of time series analysis is employed to analyse the data. The stationary of the variables have been checked by using Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) Unit Root test and hence they are stationery at first difference. The co- integration test also shows that there is a long run relationship between the dependent and independent variables. Accordingly, the finding of the study shows that FDI, GDP per capita, exchange rate, total investment as percentage of GDP, inflow of FDI stock, trade as percentage of GDP, annual growth rate of GDP and liberalization of the economy have positive impact on Ethiopian GDP. Whereas Gross fixed domestic investment, inflows of FDI and Gross capital formation influence economic growth of Ethiopia negatively. This finding suggests that there should be better policy framework to attract and improve the volume of FDI through creating conducive environment for investment. Addissie Melak ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 31 Jan 2018 07:59:00 +0000 Strategic Orientation Based on Business Environment and Entreprenurs Behavior as Well as its Effects on SME Performance and Competitiveness in Bali Indonesia <p>The purpose of this study is to test and to analyze the role of the external business environment and internal supports entrepreneurial behaviour in improving the implementation of strategies oriented to improve the performance of the business that drives the creation of high competitiveness in export-oriented SMEs at Bali.</p><p>Data were collected through a questionnaire involving 175 export-oriented SMEs in Bali, but 138 questionnaires that used for the analysis. Non-response bias test showed there is no significant difference between the questionnaires back in time with the late (less than one month), so the data can be used for further analysis. Prior to testing hypotheses with path analysis through software programmed AMOS 7.</p><p>This study finding that the existence of export-oriented SMEs in Bali has not been proven to align the orientation strategy with the business environment both external and internal to optimize business performance. However, adjustment activities with the business environment for business strategies appropriate to support entrepreneurial behaviours in carrying out management functions can create a superior competitive advantage for export-oriented SMEs in Bali. </p> I Nengah Suardhika, I Gusti Ayu Wirati Adriati ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 31 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Utilization of Fermentation Technology for Processing Waste to be Composted and Biourine <p>The main objectives of technology dissemination on Bhuana Sari group of pigs are (1) to overcome environmental contamination of the impacts of waste generated by the pig farming group, (2) to utilize pig feces and urine for compost and biourine. The methods used are counseling, training and mentoring. The results show that there is an increase in the knowledge of farmers on the production of cages that meet the requirements for sanitary healthcare and to prevent environmental pollution, tofu category increases by 10% from 30% to 40%, enough know categories increases by 20% from 45% to 65% do not know decrease from 25% to 0%. Nearly 90% of farmers have been well-informed of cattle manure processing techniques for organic fertilizers, and farmers have successfully made compost from pig manure (fesces). Almost 90% of farmers are well aware of the techniques of cattle manure (urine) for organic fertilizer (Biourine). And breeders have managed to make a biourine from urine pigs. Farmers have applied compost and biourine to fertilize banana and cocoa plantation crops.</p> I Ketut Arnawa, Bagus Putu Udiyana, I Ketut Widnyana, dan I Made Sukerta ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 06 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Determination Loyalty Based on Service Quality, Customer Satisfaction and Trust at Pt. Bpr Bukit Tanjung Badung <pre style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; tab-stops: .5in;"><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif';">Every company must have a competitive advantage to win the market. Important factor to be considered by business actor is consumer satisfaction. Consumer satisfaction must be a guideline to guide the entire organization in order to be able to meet customer satisfaction in order to become a sustainable competitive advantage. Satisfied customers will be willing to recommend to others to take advantage of BPR facilities.</span></pre> <pre style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; tab-stops: .5in;"><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif';">The purpose of this study is to test and confirm the relationship between service quality, satisfaction, trust and loyalty, in the financial services company PT. BPR Bukit Tanjung Badung. Respondents in this research are the condition of routine transactions at least 2 times and has a minimum balance of Rp.500.000,-. The number of respondents in this study determined 93 respondents by using sampling technique called proportional random sampling. This research uses Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analysis with SMARTPLS 3 program.</span></pre> <pre style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; tab-stops: .5in;"><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif';">The results of this study indicate that: 1) Service quality has a positive and significant impact on customer satisfaction, 2) Service quality has a positive and significant impact on customer confidence, 3) Service quality has positive but insignificant effect on customer loyalty, 4) satisfaction has positive and significant on customer loyalty, 5) satisfaction has a positive and significant impact on customer trust, 6) trust positively and significantly influence on customer loyalty.</span></pre> I Made Ngurah Oka Mahardika, Dr. I Nengah Suardhika, SE., MM, Dr. I Nengah Landra, SE., MM ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Corporate Governance, Value Chain and Financial Performance: An Empirical Analysis in Indonesia’s SOEs <p>The role of State-Owned Enterprises is to contribute to the national economics based on the principles of economic democracy and has a very important role in the implementation of the national economy in order to realize the welfare of society as mandated by Constitution. In facts Indonesia’s State Owned Enterprises (SOEs) has a huge assets with still lower return on assets. This paper aims to explore the relationship between&nbsp; corporate governance and value chain and Its impact to financial performance of &nbsp;Indonesia’s SOEs. Data collects from 350 managers from SOEs s and applying ordinary least square, &nbsp;Respondents come from 57 (fifty seven) SOEs in three big province that represents more than 75% SOEs. These&nbsp; results indicate that corporate governance has a positive significant effects to value chain and corporate governance and value chain has no significants impact to financial performance of SOEs.</p> Nengzih ., Yanti Murni ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 17 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Customer Loyalty Creation Based On Customer and Trust Satisfaction from Quality of Service in Pt. Pharos Indonesia Branch Denpasar <p>This study aims to test and analyze service quality, customer satisfaction, trust and customer loyalty. This research was conducted at PT. Pharos Indonesia Denpasar Branch with research population is outlet that make purchasing, sample used 100 units with purposive sampling method. All data obtained from questionnaires are suitable for use, then analyzed using structural equation model based on variance analysis known as Partial Least Square (PLS).</p> <p>The results showed that the better the quality of service provided to customers, it will have a better impact on improving customer satisfaction, the better the quality of services provided to customers, it will have an impact on increasing trust customers, the more satisfied customers will have an impact on the increase of customer loyalty, the higher the trust the customer will have an impact on increasing customer loyalty, the more satisfied customers will have an impact on increasing trust customers and the better quality of services provided to customers will have an impact on increased customer loyalty.</p> <p>The implication of this research is that service quality can be improved by considering reliability, customer satisfaction can be improved by paying attention to customer satisfaction to the whole product. Trust can be improved by taking into account competence and customer loyalty can be improved by paying attention to make purchases regularly.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ni Ketut Trisna Utami, I Wayan Sujana, I Nengah Suardhika ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Transformational Leadership and Organizational Commitment to Employee Performance with Citizenship Organization (OCB) Behavior as Intervening Variables (At PT Sarana Arga Gemeh Amerta in Denpasar City) <p>Organizations that are successful in achieving goals and being able to fulfill their social responsibilities will depend largely on their leaders. The transformational leadership style can encourage and motivate employees to increase the extra role and performance of employees towards the organization. The purpose of this study is to analyze and explain the influence of transformational leadership and organizational commitment to employee performance with organizational citizenship behavior as intervening variable at PT. Sarana Arga Gemeh Amerta (SAGA) Denpasar. The research population is the employees of PT. Sarana Arga Gemeh Amerta (SAGA) Denpasar with the number of samples is 88 respondents. The sampling technique used is proportional random sampling. The research instrument used questionnaire and analysis method using Partial Least Square (PLS) with SmartPLS v 3.0 software. The results of this study show that (1) transformational leadership has a negative effect on employee performance (2) organizational commitment has a significant positive effect on employee performance (3) transformational leadership has a significant positive effect on organizational citizenship behavior (4) organizational commitment has significant positive effect on organizational citizenship behavior (5) organizational citizenship behavior has a significant positive effect on employee performance (6) organizational citizenship behavior fully and positively and significantly mediates relationship between transformational leadership and employee performance (7) organizational citizenship behavior mediate partially and positively and significantly to the relationship between organizational commitment and employee performance. Suggestions on research that is transformational leadership should be preferred by managers because based on the results of research that transformational leadership variables have a negative effect on employee performance. Employees are also advised to further improve mutual attitudes and pay attention to its extraneous role to the organization as it can improve employee performance. Furthermore, further research can broaden the research orientation within the larger organizational and population scope and add other variables.</p> Tiksnayana Vipraprastha, I Nengah Sudja, Anik Yuesti ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0000 The Impact of Lexia Reading Program on Early Childhood Literacy: A Case Study of Kindergarten Students <p>The purpose of this study is to analyze student progress after the frequent usage of a computerized reading program that provides phonics instruction and gives students independent practice in basic reading skills.</p> Dr. Felicia Sawyer, Dr. Sharon Hunter, Dr. Bobbie Little, Dr. Gloria Elliott ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 17 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Anti-inflammatory Effect of Alcoholic Extract of Nigella sativa L on Bovine Fibroblast-like synoviocyte and THP-1 <p>Due to the side effects of current therapies for osteoarthritis one of the alternative medicine is using herbal medicine such as Nigella sativa .L which in Iranian traditional medicine has been used as a treatment option. The purpose of this study is evaluating the effect of alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa (AENS) on pro-inflammatory cytokines in Bovine Fibroblast-like BFLs (BFLS) and THP-1. BFLS cells were isolated from Radiocarpal joint. After evaluating of LC50 (27 µg/mL), both cells (5x105 (cells\wel)) were incubated at 37 ° C and 5% CO2 and 90% humidity for 72 hours with AENS (6.13 μg\ml as a media LC50). One set of cells was activated for 1h with LPS for RT-PCR analysis of COX-2, INOS, IL-1β, TNF-α expression and another set of cells was activated for 24h, cells supernatant were analyzed for PGE-2 and nitrite content. The present study demonstrates that AENS reduced expression levels of COX-2, INOS, TNF-α in control group. Reduced expression of COX2 and INOS was significantly along with the reducing production of NO and PGE2.Also, AENS decreased the expression of TNF-α and iL-1β in control group. Our results showed that the anti-inflammatory effect of AENS not only has anti-inflammatory effect on the BFLS cells but also related to the THP-1 that are active in the synovial membrane.</p> Dr Maghsoudi, Hossein, Samaneh Haj-allahyari ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 17 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0000