Psychometric scale for measuring self-efficacy is such a critical important component of strategies to improve healthy behaviour. Social cognitive theory incorporates outcome expectancy, but emphasizes self- efficacy, or a perception of oneself being capable of performing certain skills to attain some outcome. The theory behind this model builds from the research of Bandura (1977). Self-efficacy scales have been championed as a critical component in many health disease prevention oriented programmes. Maternal, environmental and behavioral factors have been recognized as additional important determinants behavior change modeled in such approach to provide sustainable intervention in promoting self-efficacy to perceived risks. Development of Mother Self-Efficacy scale to measure this ability is critical in Diarrhea prevention and sustaining desired interventions.
Water is the most important natural resource, indispensable for life and at the same time the backbone of growth and prosperity for humankind. More than 1.1 billion people lack access to safe water and 2.6-billion lack access to basic sanitation in the world today. Water is not like other commodities in the sense that it is essential to human life. It is also essential to economic growth and poverty reduction. About 18% of the world’s population lacks access to improved water supply, According to WHO, 1.6 million deaths per year can be attributed to unsafe water and lack of sanitation (Pérard, 2007:42). Major threats to the sustainability of rural water supplies include high poverty levels in communities, weak institutional framework and inability of communities to handle breakdowns.
The purpose of the research was to determine the factors that affect the sustainability of rural water supply facilities in Sankuri Division, Garissa District. To explore the causes of non-functionality of the water supply, a purposive survey was undertaken covering five (5) locations situated within the proximity of the Tana Rive with a sample of 384 households for quantitative data. Qualitative data was collected through focused group discussions and key informant interviews.
The study established demographic characteristics of the study population, majority of the respondents (73.8%) that fetched water for the household were women, and 4.4% were female children. As concerns their level of education and ability to pay for the services, those with higher levels of education were more likely to pay for the water services. Economic factor had a bearing on the households’ ability to pay for the services and therefore the need to consider the cost implication for sustainability of the WSS. Aspects of the operations and management of the WSS elicited components of sustainability and the study’s findings whereby Water management Committee accounted for 48.6%, however components of management contributing to unsustainability among others were poor management skills 18%, corruption among the office bearers 8.4% and lack of accountability 8%.
The study concluded that involvement of women in the management of the water systems since they are mostly involved in accessing this valuable commodity for their households is of utter importance, given their key role in this vital commodity for the members of their households. Cost has played a crucial role in the sustainability of the WSS, and lastly, Governance issues were not articulated to promote active community participation by the government policy, hence influence of the Operation and Management of the WSS.
The study made recommendations at two levels: To the Government to incorporate basic Operations and Management skills for the WSS teams and enhance the capacity building in the initiation of the projects. Water Service Providers to be aware of the consumers’ preference in the management of the WSS. The committee members’ capacity building is crucial for the attainment of sustainability of the WSS. Water tariffs to be affordable in order to support the communities’ ability to pay for the services, and to facilitate maintenance of the systems. Lastly, planning of annual stakeholders and management meetings to promote trust and ownership of the water facility should be emphasized.
This article was developed based on the qualitative literature research with the intention of exploring the field of social psychology and its interface with psychosocial counselling. Social psychology seeks to understand how each person’s social behaviour is influenced by the culture, situation and environment in which it takes place; whereas psychosocial counselling aims to enhance the client’s psychological and social functioning in the context of his environment and circumstance. Social psychology and psychosocial counselling have both tended to focus more on managing specific human problems and social issues. The long established partnership between these two perspectives has resulted in the development of scientific theory and practical interventions over several decades. This implies that social psychology provides a framework of resources from which psychosocial counselling draws when dealing with the diverse problem situations that affect people in their social lives. The research question was: What elements in social psychology can interface with psychosocial counselling? The focus of the research was on three key elements in social psychology: self-concept, social attitudes and social prejudice. This article illustrates how these elements interface with psychosocial counselling. Therefore, social psychology and psychosocial counselling both have a significant role to play in the wider spectrum of social-welfare and human-relation services offered to needy people at all levels of contact.
Lord prof PhD PhD Momtchil Dobrev-Halachev developed 2010 “Financially banking resource-based technological mafia-driven materialism” as a based principle materialismus since more than 17 century.08 “Theory of generating of crises “, 2010 “Theory and praxice of the Mafiotismus” and 2001 “Theory of the mafia”. Based on these two theories this paper explane the establishment of the mafiotismus all over the world – principles, theory and praxis in European Union , European Commission and in the Republic Bulgaria
Non-Performing Assets are a burning topic of concern for the public sector banks, as managing and controlling NPA is very important. The current paper with the help of secondary data, from RBI website, tried to analyse the 8 years, (2010-2018) net non-performing asset data of 26 public sector banks, by using Hausman test statistics, and with the help of Stata software. The main objective of the study is to find out the factors influencing the Non-Performing Assets in the Indian Banking Sector. This paper also focuses on the reason behind the NPA and its impact on banking operations.
The group of foreign language instructors and Indonesian language instructors for foreigners initially had problems in the fields of HR, legality, marketing and management. The implementation of the community partnership program (PKM) funded by the Ministry of Research and Technology's Research and Development Program aims to solve partner problems through entrepreneurship building. The method applied is in the form of knowledge transfer in the form of counseling, training, simulation and diffusion of science and technology about teaching methods, mentoring financial management and marketing and managing agency permits. The teaching method quality improvement program is carried out through workshops and workshops with the theme of teaching Indonesian and multimedia-based foreign languages. The resulting output is in the form of certificates and the quality of teaching increases. The problem of business management and enlargement has been solved through mentoring by management experts so that partners know the tips of building a small business. To build a language teaching business, the team helped partners manage the Business Course and Training (LKP) business license in a notary and operational permits in the Badung District Education Office. From the marketing aspect, the team has helped partner market course service products through the creation of signboards, business cards and websites with the domain www.gepbali.com . The implementation of all these activities has been running 70% while the draft article and seminar papers are still in draft form. This activity has had a positive impact on providing employment for language teachers and improving language skills for the community.
This study aims to test The Influence of Leadership and Organizational Commitment to Employee Performance with Job Satisfaction as a Variable Intervening is carried out at the Dtw Tanah Lot Tabanan Office.
This research is a quantitative research using primary data obtained from questionnaires and measured using a Likert scale. The population of this study were employees at the DTW Tanah Lot Tabanan management office Based on the data obtained at the Tanah Lot DTW management office in Tabanan Regency the number of employees is 40 people which is less than 100, then taken entirely, so the research is population research. (Sample saturated). Data analysis techniques used in this study are Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) based on Partial Least Square (PLS) using the help of the Smart PLS 3.0 program.
The results showed that Leadership has a positive and significant effect on job satisfaction. Organizational commitment has a positive and significant effect on job satisfaction. Leadership has a positive and significant effect on employee performance. Organizational commitment has a positive and significant effect on employee performance. Job satisfaction has a positive and significant effect on employee performance. The effect of mediation on job satisfaction variables on the indirect influence of leadership on employee performance is partial (partial mediation), meaning thatvariable job satisfaction is not a key determinant of the influence of leadership on employee performance at the Tanah Lot Tabanan Tourist Destination (DTW) office. Influence of mediation on job satisfaction variables on indirect effects Organizational commitment to employee performance is partial (partial mediation), meaning that variable job satisfaction is not a key determinant of the influence of leadership on employee performance at the Tanah Lot Tabanan Tourist Destination (DTW) office.
The development of Tourist Destination is newly become the alternative which is important progressively and insit on to the new atmosphere and warm image and also avoid impression monotonous. To realize the mentioned, hence the research of the system of management of tourist destinations is very urgently done by owning special target of research, that is: (1) System of analysis of environmental utility facility of Coastal Tourist Destination Pandawa Beach, (2) System analysis and pranata of management of Coastal tourist Destination management of Pandawa Beach, (3) analyzing storey at Pandawa Beach, (4) Analyzing tourist expectation to Coastal tourist destination Pandawa Beach.
This research is designed to develop. Population in this research is management of Pandawa Beach, a domestic tourist and tourist of foreign countries paying a visit to the Coastal touris destination of Pandawa Beach which its amount is boundless. Sample in Pandawa Beach tourist destination management, domestic tourist and foreign countries paying a visit to tourist destination Pandawa Beach of May until June 2018. Data colected in this research cover the qualitative and quantitative data. Data collecting is done with the questionnaire alloted to Coastal tourist destination organizar of Pandawa Beach and tourist which is paying a visit to pay visit to the Coastal tourist destination of Pandawa Beach. Analyze the data using the descriptive analysis.
Coastal tourist destination área of ??Pandawa Beach is managed by BUMDA Kutuh, Badung dimiciling as Holding Company for all units of an effortless custom society owned and managed by the countryside of Kutuh, Badung. Pandawa Beach's coastal destination management is run by the Coastal Fascination of Pandawa Beach Unit of effort. All units of the local sociaty of Kutuh Countryside of Custom, Badung.
This study investigated the relationship between parental expectation, attitude to academic subjects and career aspiration among senior secondary school students in Sokoto Metropolis. A descriptive research design was adopted in this study. Purposive sampling procedure was used to select 10 out of the 21 Senior Secondary Schools in Sokoto Metropolis. 346 students were selected using Research Advisor table of determining sample size in a given population. Three instruments were used for data collection in this study namely: Adopted Version of Boyi Parental Influence Questionnaire to measure parental expectations on career aspirations of students, Adopted Version of Boyi Subject Selection Questionnaire to measure students’ Attitude to Academic Subjects and Adapted version of Bakare Motivation for Occupation Preference Scale (MOPS) to measure students’ career aspirations. Data were analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Multiple Regression Analysis with the use of Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 20.0. The result showed that there was significant relationship between parental expectations and career aspirations of respondents. Also there was significant relationship between attitude to academic subjects and career aspirations of respondents. However, it was found that attitude to academic subjects is more related to career aspirations of senior secondary school students than their parental expectation. Based on these findings, it was recommended that counsellors and teachers should assist the students in developing positive attitude to academic subjects in order to improve their awareness of career aspirations and to minimize the level of ignorance while choosing career.